- May 7, 2014
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Term paper writing
One of the majorÂ areas of research, which constantly attract attentionÂ of political scientistsÂ and sociologists, is theÂ voting behaviorÂ of differentÂ groups.Â The reason for that is that the effectiveness ofÂ the interactionÂ of politicalÂ leadersÂ and the electorateÂ is largely dueÂ to whetherÂ the candidate takes into account theÂ requirements ofÂ society, values”‹”‹, needs,Â current problemsÂ of populationÂ and, on theÂ other hand, theÂ personal qualities ofÂ the leader and how he is perceived by voters. The study ofÂ these aspectsÂ is particularly important for the success of the electoral campaign, and is necessary in theÂ prognosticÂ modelingÂ of the behaviorÂ of politicians,Â developmentÂ of strategies andÂ tactics of theÂ campaign,Â for psychologists,Â counselors andÂ political consultants during democratic elections.
The main provisions considered in the paper are:
1. The necessary condition forÂ the successÂ of anyÂ campaignÂ is studyÂ andÂ consideration of socio-psychologicalÂ determinantsÂ of electoral behavior.
2.Â The behaviorÂ of the electorateÂ is determined by theÂ needs,Â motives,Â value orientations,Â ideological preferencesÂ of voters.
The Psychology of Voting Behavior
The electoralÂ behavior of citizens was investigatedÂ under threeÂ main approaches: sociologicalÂ (P.Â Lazarsfeld, B.Â Berelson, J.Godet, W.Â McFee, S.Â LipsetÂ and S.Â Rokkan), socio-psychologicalÂ (E.Â Campbell, P.Converse, W.Â Miller, D.Â Stokes, etc) andÂ an approach based onÂ rational choice theory(Buchanan, G.Â Tullock, E.Â Downs, etc).Â Later, someÂ ofÂ these approachesÂ have been developedÂ in the works ofÂ M.P.Â Fiorino, G.Â Simon, R.Â and J.Â SpargoÂ Hakfelda, M.Â Lodgeand CharlesÂ Taber, and many others. (Houghton 2008)
Based on the analysisÂ of theoriesÂ and conceptsÂ of electoral behaviorÂ and its essential characteristics, the concept ofÂ “voting behavior” canÂ be defined as collective orÂ individual actionsÂ of social actors,Â involved in delegation ofÂ authorityÂ of political actorsÂ on the basis ofÂ a complexÂ objective and subjective,Â rational and irrational determinants. (Houghton 2008)
It is necessary to consider the different approaches to the study of electoral behavior: the sociological, psychological and social approach based on rational choice theory.