- August 19, 2012
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Free essays
In our work we will discussed English teaching problems and how to adapt a curriculum for the students, who have English as a second language in a mainstream classes. But we can’t stopped only on this topics and don’t pay our attention on the other important aspects. This topic, at first view, seems rather narrow specialized but I’d like to reveal it from different sides.
In the beginning of this research I want ask the simple question which explain the necessity of English language at all: Why is it so important to learn English nowadays? We can say that English is important for all people and it will be true, but I want to prove in several paragraphs that this language is really important and sometimes these knowledges influence upon life level.
Let’s focus our thoughts at the young people. I consider them the first group of people who need English language and our work is directed on them. Now young people has a lot of new opportunities and great future. They can travel all over the world, can communicate with the people of the same age from different countries, can study culture and traditions of different nations. Certainly, it is hard and sometimes impossible to do if you don’t speak foreign language. The most popular and widespread language in modern world is English. Nowadays, it is spoken in many countries, millions of people speak English, because it is their native language. A lot of people study it, because it is a guarantee of successful future, in modern world it is probably impossible to make a good career in any branch if you doesn’t speak English.Â If you want “do money” ”“ you should know English. English is today, the world’s business language ”“ it is the international language in different fields, such as communications, science and technology, aviation, entertainment. Linguist David Graddol said in his seminal report, English Next, “The role of education is now seen as to provide generic skills”¦ in globalised economies, English seems to have joined this list of basic skills.” We can say that English is a global language and it will be true from our side, because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a “world language” of the modern era (David Graddol (1997). “The Future of English?”. The British Council). Of course, English is not an official language in most countries, but this language most often taught as a second language around the world. Moreover, it is the official language for aerial and maritime communications. Also English is an official language of many international organizations, including the United Nations Organization and the International Olympic Committee.
English is the strongest adversary for a language which can be used almost anywhere. This situation has historical character. The time of colonialism was the beginning of English spreading. As we remember from the History lessons, British and American colonialism in pair with economic domination served to carry the language to the four corners of the earth. In such a way, American technological dynamism has served to occupy its position and guarantee that learning it remains a gap to a very large market and a wide range of information. As you understand, English become universal language and in our century of technical progress it is impermissible don’t want to know it.
Observing English language importance all over the world we can say that second language acquisition is the process by which people learn a second language in addition to their native language. I want to explain several terms in the next sentences. For example, the term second language is used to describe the acquisition of any language after the acquisition of the mother tongue. Also the popular terms are: “L1”, “L2”.Â “L1”, referred to as the “source language” and the language to be learned is often referred to as the “target language” or “L2”. There some special abbreviations connected with the language terms. For instance, second language acquisition may be abbreviated “SLA”, or L2A, for “L2 acquisition”.
Before we continue our discussing, let pay attention at the differentÂ abbreviations, which we will use in this work: ESL (English as a second language), ESOL (English for speakers of other languages), and EFL (English as a foreign language) – Â all this abbreviations refer to the use or study of English by speakers with a different native languages.
The exact usage of such specialized terms and abbreviations in different countries, is described below. All these terms are usually used in relation to teaching and learning English. The abbreviation ELT (English language teaching) is a widely used teacher-centred term, as in the English language teaching practice of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. The abbreviations TESL (teaching English as a second language), TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) and TEFL (teaching English as a foreign language) are also used.
We know that other terms are used Â in this field too. They include EAL (English as an additional language), ESD (English as a second dialect), EIL (English as an international language), ELF (English as a lingua franca), ESP (English for special purposes, or English for Specific Purposes), EAP (English for academic purposes). Several terms that refer to those who are learning English are ELL (English language learner), LEP (limited English proficiency) and CLD (culturally and linguistically diverse).
In fact, some SLA researchers seek to better understand language learning without recourse to factors outside learner language. At any rate, researchers may adopt an interlanguage perspective, that’s why they tried explore learner language as a linguistic system, or they may study how learner language compares to the target language. This language research is centered on the question: What are the unique characteristics of learner language? A big account of the research has focused on the English language as the L2, because a big amount of people around the world learning and teaching it.
In such a way, language teaching practice often show that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English. Moreover, look at this example: a native speaker of Chinese may have more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because German is closely related to English, but Chinese is not. Remarkably, this may be true for anyone of any mother tongue setting out to learn any other language.
It is normal, that language learners often do syntax and pronunciation mistakes. This is the result from the influence of their L1. These errors are known as L1 transfer or “language interference”. It is proved that these transfer effects are usually stronger for beginners’ language production, and SLA research has raises many errors which cannot be attributed to the L1 (for example, failure to apply 3rd person present singular -s to verbs, as in “he like”).
English is not a simple language and as a result it has several features which may create difficulties for learners. A large number of people are studying it, so, programs and products have been developed to help them in this process, such as the monolingual learner’s dictionary, which is written with a restricted defining vocabulary.
In such a way, the study of the effects of teaching on second language acquisition looking for systematically measure or evaluate the effectiveness of language teaching practices. In fact, such studies have been undertaken for every level of language, from phonetics to pragmatics, and for almost every current teaching methodology. It is impossible to summarize all of them here. However, some general issues we have been addressed in our work for the best understanding.
Research has proved that many traditional language-teaching techniques are extremely inefficient (P Lightbown, 1990). However, a consensus of SLA scholars convinces us that formal instruction can help in language learning.
Analyzing different publication on this topic we have a question: can language teaching have a constructive effect beyond providing learners with enhanced input? On my opinion, instruction must usually take place in the learner’s first language, at least initially. Further research on this at different levels of language has produced quite different results. When we looked at traditional areas of explicit teaching, such as grammar, phonology and vocabulary, we have had decidedly mixed results. Interestingly, the higher-level aspects of language such as sociopragmaticsÂ and discourse competence have shown the strong effects from explicit instruction.
The following fragment is from “Conversations with Mainstream Teachers: What can we tell them about second language learning and teaching?” Elaine Tarone, Diane Tedick, (University of Minnesota, MinneTESOL Fall Conference, Minnesota, Nov 10, 2000) include interest thoughts and questions with an short easily answers. The text written below has a direct attitude to a subject of our research.
This discussion begin from the such words: How do people learn second languages?
“How long does it take to learn English? When will the student be ready to move up a level? Be ready to get a job?”
How long it takes depends on the age of the learner, their previous literacy, the age of first exposure to English and the goals of instruction in the language program.
Ã¼ How old are the learners?
Ã¼ Are the learners literate in their native language?
Ã¼ At what age did they begin learning English? What was their age on arrival in the U.S.?
Oral skills in a second language develop rather quickly, in as little as 2 years, but literacy-related skills in a second language seem to be much slower to develop (Collier 1989). At the children example we see that they are literate in their native language quickly, and who are 8 to 12 years old when they enter English-only programs, take the least time – 5 to 7 years – to become literate in English and to catch up in mastery of content. But this is not so easily for students. Frankly speaking, it is a hard work for students to learn any language.
Similar findings are in the Twin Cities; Bosher & Rowekamp (1998) find that the native language skills play a big role in this process. For instance, immigrant students who did best in U.S. higher education were those who had good native-language school backgrounds.
Ã¼Â Â What are the main goals of instruction: oral skills and/or literacy skills? Literacy for survival, high school, or college? What kind of job: assembly-line, hotel worker, health care, secretarial, computer technician, college?
That’s a pity, but very often the goals of instruction are too low: only to get learners out of the language classroom and into either the workplace or the mainstream where there may be no support for language learning (Platt & Troudi 1997).
Let’s continue our research and try to focus our point of view at the main aim.
The main aim of this our work is to find an answer at the question about adapting curriculum for ESL students. We may adapt the curriculum goals and objectives or outcomes of any department-developed or – approved course to facilitate an ESL student’s English language acquisition and transition to regular programming. The E course for any curriculum must be adapted 50 per cent or more. Of course, this designation does not set limitations on teacher-student contact time and it also does not set limitations on the percentage of time a student spends in the classroom versus pull-out time. All these factors define the training requirements of the student ESL and class as integer comparatively facility available in each educational institution.
In such a way, curriculum adaptations are to be undertaken before an ESL student at mainstream begins a course. Individual Education Plan (IEP) should be used for these adaptations and include different important and sometimes specific moments. Let’s discussed the next: What kinds of curriculum adaptationsÂ may be made?
At first, adaptations of curriculum aims and objectives may require substantial changes in curriculum delivery. We know, that these adaptations are intended to help ESL students develop basic interpersonal communication skills, cognitive academic language proficiency, and subject-area knowledge. It is necessary to prepare them for success courses where English is the language of instruction.
In my opinion, the content of learning resources may need to be adapted to accommodate the ESL learner’s linguistic and academic needs.
In fact, adaptations may be required when this content proves too challenging for the learner in the form that it is presented. Of course, ESL learners may not always have the subject-specific vocabulary or the grade-appropriate linguistic skills. However, they often have sufficient English language skills to benefit from content-based instruction in an integrated classroom setting. I think, if the teacher believes that the concepts are both relevant and attainable when presented in an alternative form, adaptations may be made. Coming thereof, important and relevant concepts can still be taught within an E designated course.
I agree with different researchers thoughts, that content adaptations may include:
Ã¼Â Â modifying the presentation of material
Ã¼Â Â Â reducing the amount of material presented
Ã¼Â Â Â rewording the text or handout material using more appropriate vocabulary
Ã¼Â Â Â simplifying charts, diagrams, and examples, while allowing key points to remain
In adapting content to help teach concepts and enrich learning may be used alternative materials, with adjustments to vocabulary, presentation, or product expectations. Above enumerated materials include low-vocabulary, high-interest novels or subject workbooks with less detailed page displays, which are offered by most publishers of ESL educational materials. Students need a help in their English learning process and these adaptations allow them to continue learning by “paralleling” course content in the most enabling, relevant environment with teacher and peer support.
Also we disturbed by the topic of process adaptations. Clearly, process adaptations refer to adjustments in the delivery and pacing of a course. Many teachers need an increasing of the wide range of linguistic skills required of second language learners in mainstream classes and an awareness of the types of difficulty learners are likely to encounter.
Moreover, ESL students may demonstrate strong communicative language skills but may not have the cognitive academic language proficiency necessary for success in content areas. And these skills students should develop with the teachers help. Initially, students may have difficulty with new vocabulary, exhibit differences between written and spoken language skills, demonstrate weak study skills, and lack background knowledge. In this case teachers have a determined goal. This goal is to help learners overcome their reluctance to engage in reading, to help them comprehend the reading and also apply the skills they have learned to other reading tasks. This may mean presenting materials at a slower rate using simplified vocabulary to increase comprehension, using various methods of review, and allowing more time for learners to understand the language and concepts.
As we know from different publications in making process adaptations, teachers need to:
Ã¼ embed content within meaningful contexts by actively involving all six language modes: listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing, and representing
Ã¼ identify and teach specific vocabulary that cannot be simplified
Ã¼ define content and language outcomes so that learning can be measured
Ã¼ organize material into small, easily attainable, and sequential steps so that students can develop learning skills and master content
Use of the “preview, view, and review” instructional approach introduced by A.U. Chamot and J.M. O’Malley (1987), who developed the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA), involves the following five steps in lesson planning. I’d like to rewrite all of them in the next paragraph. In addition, models like CALLA target the system-wide execution, which is beyond an individual ESL teacher’s control. It is interest that individual ESL teachers can certainly implement CBEC in their own classroom without having the system involved.
Let’s look at the planning process:
1. Preparation: The teacher prepares students for a lesson by focusing their attention on the topic and having them make connections between what they already know and what they have not yet learned.
2. Â Presentation: The teacher outlines the major concept(s) in the lesson by explaining it, demonstrating a process, and having students read and take notes. As well, the teacher may lead a brainstorming activity to generate some of the dominant themes for students to research, assign reading with a specific focus, or read with students, pointing out titles, pictures, maps, and graphs, and reading first and last paragraphs.
3. Practice:Â The teacher involves students in an activity that allows them to practice what has been presented so that they can fully understand the concept(s). Through practice and hands-on experience, students are better able to consolidate their learning and manipulate both the concept(s) and the language skills needed to express what they have learned.
4. Evaluation: The teacher evaluates students’ knowledge of the lesson to see what they have understood. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways. For example, students could
Ã¼Â Â share their observations
Ã¼Â Â Â prepare a short presentation
Ã¼Â Â Â participate in a cooperative peer activity
Ã¼Â Â Â note what they have learned in order of priority
Ã¼Â Â Â ask unanswered questions
5. Follow-up (expansion):Â The teacher assigns an activity that allows students to integrate the new concept(s) and skills they have acquired with their prior knowledge and experiences. Activities could include
Ã¼Â Â Â reading extensively on the topic
Ã¼Â Â Â participating in skits and role plays
Ã¼Â Â Â designing posters and writing letters
Ã¼Â Â Â inviting speakers to the classroom to talk about the issue(s)
I show all steps of this process, because in my opinion language learning process should have a system and used step by step for the best results.
Due to this research become understandable that the CALLA model provides all teachers with useful general guidelines for instructional planning. Moreover, it is an excellent scheme for incorporating content, language, and learning strategies into effective lesson planning. In fact, more specific procedures for planning integrated lessons, along with detailed information about the teaching of academic language and learning strategies, are contained in the Manitoba Education and Training document Secondary Sourcebook for Integrating ESL and Content Instruction Using the Foresee Approach (1994). The Foresee Approach was developed by Richard Kidd and Brenda Marquardson.
A lot of special literature were analyzed before this work have been written and, of course, during the studying this topic I found an interesting internet journal (The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. X, No. 2, February 2004) which discussed this question from the professional side. The follow words is from this source and have direct attitude to the our work. For the best explaining I will accompany the following text with my own conclusions.
As we know, traditionally, ESL instruction focuses on preparing ESL students to several simple things: to know what to say and how to say it in different situations along, with basic reading and writing skills (Freeman & Freedman, 1998). In this regard, ESL teachers can achieve that goal by moving beyond the functional-notional language syllabus and by adopting a CBEC, which targets content rich, high-standards curriculum with critical thinking skills.
In our case we should analyze theoretical background to better understanding. Special literature show us that Cummins (1980;1981;1996) theorized that there are two kinds of English proficiency that ESL students must learn. We will describe them for the understanding and marked main features. The first is basic interpersonal conversational skills (BICS) that ESL students need when they carry on face-to-face conversation in social settings. By Cummins BICS English is characterized as context-embedded since contextual cues are available to both speaker and listener involved in the conversation, and it is cognitively undemanding. As the vignette illustrates, ESL students can easily recount orally what happened to them personally without difficulty once they attain fluency. According to Cummins (1980), it takes only 2 to 3 years for ESL students to attain BICS English. In other words, BICS English is easy to learn, and can be attained in a rather short period of time.
From the other side we can find the other proficiency and it is cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP). CALP English is characterized as context-reduced, as is found in written texts in content areas such as math, science, and social studies. Due to its decontextualized nature, ESL students struggle to comprehend what they read and to express what they know in writing. The usage of CALP English is no so widespread. It is used in context-reduced academic learning demands high cognition on the part of the ESL student. In addition, Cummins reports that it takes 5 to 7 years for ESL students to be proficient in CALP English. Unlike BICS learning, CALP learning is a long-term undertaking. Collier (1987, 1989; Collier & Thomas, 1989) suggests that it can take up to 10 years for ESL students to reach grade-level CALP English depending on the kind of English instruction they receive. Collier & Thomas (1989) report that the ESL students who were taught in pull-out ESL settings took the longest time to reach grade level. What Cummins’ BICS and CALP signify for ESL education is that, in order for ESL students to read and comprehend content area textbooks and perform cognitively demanding tasks, such as writing research papers, participating in debates, and presenting research papers, they need CALP English that takes them beyond that of BICS English.
In such a way, ESL students’ content area success matters because ESL teachers, as well as mainstream teachers, are held responsible for their adequate yearly academic progress. As discussed so far, ESL students’ academic success is heavily hinged upon attaining CALP English.
Next step of this work will explain: What supports Â may be requiredÂ to implement courses adaptedÂ or developedÂ for ESL students?
As we understand from the publication in implementing E designated courses and ESL-SICs, the planning team should consider the kinds of teacher, student, resource, and classroom supports that may be required. There are several kinds of considerations which you can see in the paragraph below.
TeacherÂ Â Considerations
Ã¼ Teachers should have a sound knowledge of ESL instruction and experience in working with ESL students, developed through courses, workshops, and classroom practice.
Ã¼ Teachers should be aware of ESL policies and instructional approaches developed or recommended by the department regarding ESL programming and the inclusion of ESL students in the regular Senior Years environment.
Ã¼ Teachers require sufficient time to do the initial planning for an
Ã¼ E designated course or an ESL-SIC.
Ã¼ Teachers may require in-class assistance, team-teaching time, help with materials, and suggestions for evaluation.
StudentÂ Â Considerations
Ã¼ ESL students may require additional time and assistance to complete assignments and prepare for tests.
Ã¼ ESL students should understand and be involved in planning their IEPs.
Ã¼ ESL students’ language learning can be enhanced by working with a “buddy” or tutor on assignments and projects.
LearningÂ ResourceÂ Considerations
Ã¼ Learning resources specifically developed for ESL learners facilitate language acquisition and curriculum adaptation.
Ã¼ ESL resources may include
””Â age-appropriate texts with multiple vocabulary levels
””Â videotapes or audiotapes for student review
””Â computer-assisted learning software and computer hardware and accessories to enhance learning
””Â games, kits, or other resources that allow for classroom interaction
””Â visual resources such as posters, overheads, and charts that serve as contextual aids
Ã¼ Care should be taken to ensure that class size is appropriate and enables ESL programming to be enhanced and to succeed.
Ã¼ Establishing an inclusive and safe classroom environment conducive to the integration of ESL learners helps students feel welcome and respected in the classroom.
Ã¼ All students should be made aware of the learning requirements of ESL students, the goals of integration and adaptation, and the role that the whole class can play in making the ESL learning experience a success for all.
Ã¼ All students may learn important interpersonal and social skills and develop positive attitudes through experiences such as tutoring, cooperative groups, and interactive learning experiences.
The physical environment can play an important role in creating an inclusive and effective classroom setting. Consideration should be given Â to
””Â the arrangement of desks and distribution of students
””Â the availability of tables for group work
””Â the use of visuals to reinforce concepts
We can’t leave without our attention the moment about necessity of content based ESL curriculum.
In fact, in traditional ESL classes, the most time is spent on “how-to-says” under imagined situations focusing on social language competency; however, language learning in CBEC provides purposeful, meaningful, and authentic opportunities for ESL students (Short, 1993). Thus, the benefits of CBEC are manifold:
First of all, ESL students learn age-appropriate content knowledge that reflects the content learning in the mainstream. At the same time, while there is a significant gap in background knowledge between ESL students and mainstream students, CBEC can provide ESL students with opportunities to catch up with mainstream students’ background knowledge. Thereby, when they learn grade-level content in math, science, and social studies, the background knowledge gained from CBEC will facilitate their learning in mainstream classes. According to Chamot and O’Malley (1994), CBEC is a motivation factor for ESL students. They not only feel that they are being challenged with a high-standards curriculum, but also feel more prepared in mainstream classes because they understand more.
Second, ESL students read authentic texts, not simplified or contrived text written for ESL students only. Thus, learning is more meaningful and situated.
Third, language learning becomes more purposeful. That is, ESL students learn the language, not about the language. Due to this, English learning becomes a means to an end, which can accelerate second language acquisition. As we see, they do not just learn how to construct an expository writing, instead they can write about the science experiment result based on the hypothesis they formed.
Fourth, ESL students learn technical vocabulary, which they critically lack. Their vocabulary knowledge has been closely linked with academic success. CBEC provides the most meaningful vocabulary learning opportunities for ESL students because they not only learn technical vocabulary but also use it in context. Thus vocabulary learning is not only facilitated but also enduring.
Mainstream teachers now are on ways to help their second language students achieve success in content area subjects. Second language students encounter academic difficulties related to language and prior educational experiences, in this case for solving this problem, different techniques can be used by mainstream classroom teachers to further the academic development of ESL students.
In such a way, a major problem that second language students face is the often mismatch between the language skills that students have acquired at the time that they are expected to move into all English mainstream classes, and the level of academic language actually needed to succeed in these settings. For instance, students generally “test out” of bilingual and ESL programs when they are able to pass language proficiency tests that focus on social, interactive and basic literacy skills. However, these are not the same language skills typically used for academic purposes. As we understand, ESL students not only need help in the development of their academic language skills throughout the school day, but they also frequently need help in how to learn academic content. ESL students have often had limited opportunities to develop effective learning strategies and study skills. They also frequently have gaps in their subject matter knowledge, when compared to mainstream students at their grade level. This can be due to the nature of many ESL and bilingual programs and/or to the students prior educational background in their home countries.
Returning to the cognitive academic language learning approach (CALLA) we should once more noted that it is an instructional system designed to develop academic language skills in English for students in upper elementary and secondary schools. CALLA is intended for three types of students:
1) students who have developed social communicative skills in English but have not developed academic language skills appropriate to their grade level;
2) students exiting bilingual programs who need assistance transferring concepts and skills from their native language to English, and
3) bilingual English-dominant students who are less academically proficient in their native language than in English, and who need to further develop academic English language skills.
As we remember, there are three basic components of CALLA: grade appropriate content, academic language development, and learning strategy instruction. All of these components are integrated into an instruction system which teaches ESL students how to use language and learning strategies that they need for success in academic areas of the curriculum. In such a way, the CALLA content-based curriculum is aligned with the mainstream curriculum so that the ESL students are exposed to the same topics they will encounter in the mainstream classes. At any rate, students are phased in to mainstream classes. TheyÂ start educational process at first with science, then math, then social students, and finally, language arts. Academic language development is critical for the reasons outlined above, and because it is often underemphasized in traditional ESL classes.
Stopped at the learning strategy we can matched that instruction is important because students who are consciously aware of the language learning strategies they are using are better able to organize these strategies and use them more effectively depending on the particular language task at hand. These strategies can be divided into metacognitive strategies (such as evaluating how well one has achieved a learning objective), cognitive strategies (such as grouping items to be learned in meaningful categories) and social-affective strategies (such as seeking out peer interactions to assist learning). This information above was taken fromÂ the next source: Chamot, A., & O’Malley, J. M. (1989).
Is special classes important for ESL students? This question is often debated among ESL teachers. I strongly believe it is impossible to focus on language without such classes, because they help to open language potential in many students and find the most important way of English learning. ESL methodology has special moments. In fact, it places a great emphasis not only on training total skills: speaking, writing, listening and reading within a context, but concentrates on life important areas, where behavioral strategies and techniques play an important role.
I have an interesting example from one ESL journal connected with business. This strategies can be used in different spheres of ESL teaching with changing them in determined necessary direction. Let’s look at this business example and conclusions. Â Here is the text in the language of original: “Last academic year we piloted teaching negotiations for future managers and employed a case study method with a student -centered approach. We have drawn on, aspects of developing negotiation skills, practice in language, style and cross-cultural awareness. I am sure this approach develops communication competence by putting the students in the center of the action. Our students use language actively, practice communication skills, learn the fundamentals of a negotiation process, develop an awareness of different cultures’ approach to negotiation.
A classroom becomes a workshop in training communication and language skills, cross-cultural awareness. A teacher acts as a reference person in negotiating strategies and stages; a trainer who provides language input and trains negotiation strategies; a facilitator who helps to create dynamic partnership in learning between the teacher and the student. This partnership enhances the learning experience, helps to achieve communicative competence. The teacher focuses on providing the students with vocabulary, grammatical structures, content feedback, as well as helping them to become sensitive negotiators. In their turn students ask for vocabulary and structures. Moreover with the case study method students are allowed to communicate in their own individual groups, multiplying the opportunities to produce language and to be corrected as well as to practice communication and negotiation skills. Besides this method allows to expand students’ repertoire of communication skills by requiring them to develop presentation, team working, networking, critical / analytical problem solving skills, and become sensitive negotiators.
While planning a classroom activity it’s necessary to be well aware of the sequence of a negotiation case. Each case consists of all or a part of the following segments:
1. Original contact via letter or telephone.
2. Arranging a meeting, including decisions regarding place and time.
3.Preparation for the negotiations (badges, visiting cards, etc.).
4.Preparing for the negotiations by filling out the Negotiation and Position Presentation Worksheets. (Each delegation has to formulate goals, priorities, bottom line, assess the balance of power, etc.)
5.The host team prepares the setting and agenda.
6.SocializingÂ Â (includingÂ Â introductions),Â Â giftÂ Â exchangeÂ Â (if appropriate); explanation of the agenda by the host team and information about where and when meetings and social activities will take place.
7.NegotiationsÂ and breaksÂ (any break isÂ consideredÂ asÂ a continuation of negotiations).
8.Written documentation of the agreement.
9.The team assigned with the responsibility for documenting the outcome of the negotiations summarize the results and send them in the form of a letter to the other team.
- The other party will write a letter either confirming or questioning the stated results.
The language presented in our course shows how to work with the collaborative model of negotiation in English. We cover different stages of a collaborative negotiation beginning with
Agreeing procedure: agreement on overall objectives and procedures ensure that nothing is forgotten or left out, and that both sides have a clear idea of the agenda. As for language means it’s important to know how to introduce and check acceptance of objectives, how to create a climate of cooperation.
Exchanging information: this step is to make clear opening statements using proper lexical means.
Questioning: after the opening statements the suppliers usually ask questions to get more information about customers’ needs.
Options: at his stage both sides brainstorm a lot of different ideas and options for working together. It’s important not to evaluate or criticize the ideas.
Bidding stage: it’s a heart of negotiation when 2 parties put forward proposals and bids. The purpose of a teacher is to input the language for formulating reasons and proposals and to teach how to bid.
Bargaining: at this stage further offers can be made. The offers are frequently linked to certain conditions and terms of a contract. The ability to use appropriate language to link offers and conditions to achieve agreement is necessary to develop.
Setting and concluding: at this final stage the participants summarize what has been said. The language to close the negotiation should be taught.
The enumerated stages provide you with a vivid picture what language we present and practice with our students in a classroom in order to introduce an idea, to establish the ground, to agree objectives and procedures using appropriate forms to achieve tactical ends, to put forward an option, to bid developing sufficiently good command to interact with clarity and precision, to discuss conditions and terms of a contract, etc.
As for interaction we train students how to react to what other people have said, to interrupt politely, to ask questions, to respond correctly questions, to correct misunderstanding, to accept or reject proposals, etc.
We provide our students with informative culture based texts on the following points: time, contract, dealÂ relationship, protocol, decision making, conflict, direct v indirect communication, win-win v win-lose. The students are to read the information, discuss in groups the areas of possible misunderstanding and conflicts due to cultural differences and to present their opinion to the whole class. The purpose of this exercise is to create an awareness of possible differences in values, which can lead to misunderstanding, frustration, and failed deals.
This is a consciousness ”“ raising exercise to sharpen students’ sensitivity to other cultures’ approach to negotiation.
The implication is that while we as language trainers need not feel that we are teaching skills, attention has to be paid to way the students use language in order to achieve particular ends. This will include attention to structure, projection, clarity, propriety and accuracy. In so doing, the language trainer does not have to approach a course from the point of view of setting out the stages of a negotiation, developing the participants’ skills at negotiating and making them manipulators of these stages.
But the language trainer does have to know what these stages are, otherwise there will be no focus in the language training, and the students may be unable to relate what they have learned to the real situations in which they should apply it”.
I agree that it was a big paragraph, but I think that you read it with great pleasure. It will be rather easy to say these by own words in several sentences, but than we will not see the main idea and so useful techniques of this process. It was a real example which discussed at the International English Language Conference and was published in the journal. As you see this example wasÂ dedicated to Â business sphere, but in a big part of our cases we can use the teaching strategy from this example and will be pleasantly surprised with the results.
At such a way new methods and techniques of foreign language training imply authenticity of the educational process ”“ the use of such materials and tasks which will stimulate a realistic situation in the classroom and result the development of interpersonal skills.
As you know and business example nudged me to write about communicative games. Clearly, that communicative games serve this purpose.
Games are wide spread teaching instrument. The game is a means of pedagogical art. The problem solving which forms the communicative game essence develops creative thinking and provides active character of knowledge and skills mastering.
In view of individual differences in foreign language acquisition it would be helpful to use cooperative learning activities in the classroom during practice teaching. Cooperative learning allows for a balanced exchange between teacher and the students; students arrive at a greater degree of grammatical correctness, accuracy and faithfulness achieved through discussion and negotiation because participants are required, for instance, to justify their positions while arguing about specific cases or situations. Another non-negligible advantage of cooperative discussion is the reduced stress and anxiety in cooperative learning situations, which more readily contributes to the development of “linguistic self-confidence”.
Moreover, ESL learners must be aware of performing tasks frequently needed in different settings. Students should have access to discourse practices available in real life interaction, such as steering the topic into a desired direction, posing questions about lesson topics. It is not sufficient that students demonstrate only their proficiency in special terminology and practice; they should also be able to demonstrate a critical reflection.
Thus the process ofÂ ESL teaching requires a system of methods which implies the use of communicative and cooperative approaches,Â stimulation of productive creative thinking.
At the end of this work I’d like to stopped at the last question about different types of approaches to foreign language teaching, which are used more often. This last part of the work shows differences of the terms “approach”, “method”, “technique”.
In fact, all these terms formulate ideas concerning learning and development in student that make important implications for second language teaching and providing of optimal input. You will be agree that learning should always be one step ahead of development. If a teacher can choose the right approach to the learners we say that it is a real art.
Frankly speaking, the relationship between a student and a teacher is extremely complex and uneven and cannot be reduced to a simple formula. Clearly, learning itself is a dynamic social process through which the teacher in a dialogue with a student can focus on emerging skills and abilities.
During teaching a students real professional teacher should have and connect several roles. And it is not a secret for anyone that the real teacher should be a good psychologist, possibly a friend, well-informed in different fields of science.
There are a lot of new teaching techniques appeared. So, the teachers of our time should try to adopt different new methods. Among them:
-Â Â Â Â brain storm;
-Â Â Â Â presentation (using group discussion); map-mind technique.
Finally, we should use all the resources we have and always be searching for new possibilities. It is known that science progress is growing rapidly, and a big part of any ESL teacher’s (especially a University teacher) responsibility is to keep abreast of new developments. Also a great affection is drawn not only the teachers’ skills, but class organization form. The correct shape of a lesson or class – organization is the most effective way of learning and understanding any academic material. As I say a special classes for ESL students are important. Any Â lesson, should have a beginning, a middle, and the end. Here it is mentioned what each part of a lesson consists of needs variety. Grouping is one aspect of the class that can be varied, moving students of the whole class to small group activities.
After reading this work everyone can come to the conclusion in their minds and answer the question: Is language teaching an art or a science?
In the conclusion I’d like to say, that it is important for ESL teachers to include all the important aspects of CBEC and follow the full procedures. ESL students need a strong ESL curriculum that prepares them to be academically successful. Finally, ESL teaching should look beyond survival and social English fluency. The ESL teachers should search the best way of teaching every day and every moment and only than the results will be good.