- August 30, 2012
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Free essays
Globalization is a chaotic and contradictory process and in the course of history a great number of scholars have maintained their own opinion on this matter. Nowadays this concept is widely discussed by politicians and common people, in press and in the streets. Is globalization a new era indeed or has nothing actually changed? It is one of the questions under discussion. Some scholars consider that our world is becoming a single civilization with common interests and values, and it is a continuous process (Robertson). Still others claim that in spite of constant development of modern technologies, the world itself remains the same, with its unchanged capitalistic values and diversity of cultures. Thus, S. Huntington considers that our world is divided into the civilization blocks with various religious and ethnic identities (Huntington).
Another question deals with globalization as a negative vs. positive process. There is no doubt that this process can not be defined as either good or bad. On the one hand, it gives people all over the world an opportunity to learn more about different cultures, study in different corners of the world, share knowledge, experience and unlimited amount of information. On the other hand, many countries are still finding it difficult to interact with new technologies. Global corporations dictate their own rules to national enterprises, and the developing countries are not able to keep up with this fast-moving process. Nevertheless globalization can not be judged as a totally destructive phenomenon, as there would be no progress without it.
One more debate is the conflict of cultures as a consequence of globalization. Some scholars consider that nations are loosing their identity and becoming a mixture of cultural and religious codes. It is impossible to stop this process and it will sooner or later result in cultural shock.
Economic sphere was greatly influenced by rapid technological progress starting from the 19th century. It caused strengthening of economic relations between countries and the formation of an integrated world economy. Moreover world trade is growing faster than world industry which creates a need for close economic relationship. Speaking about cultural sphere it is important to say that globalization had a direct impact on the organization of international sports competitions and renovation of Olympic movement. The development of international relations brought about considerable changes in political sphere as well. International cooperation created a need for world politics which resulted in the strengthening of liberalism as a major factor for economic freedom. In social sphere the process of globalization is closely connected with material welfare, freedom and the equality of rights all over the world.
There is no doubt that nowadays creative thinking becomes an important element in the context of rapid global development. It helps to improve living conditions and discover the creative potential of urban areas. Nowadays major creative resources are concentrated in the world megapolises. It leads to the decline of the original culture and utilization of the urban environment. Nowadays cities are in need of creative people in the sphere of mass media and pop culture. In modern times many cultural trends are based on Western ideology that gradually overtakes urban areas all over the world.
This concept used to imply a city of cultural and religious importance. Nowadays, however, together with globalization it developed into a centre of global politics and culture, performing international economic functions.
As a rule network approach is applied in international business, finance and development, while hierarchical approach usually deals with global trade. Thus, according to hierarchical approach world cities are categorized into global centers such as London and New York, and international financial centers such as Brussels, Madrid and others. On the other hand, the economic growth of the city or the whole country depends on its position in the world network.
Castell’s “space of flows” is a network theory. He considers that modern society rapidly transforms into network society. It is a new social order that Castells describes as “space of flows” opposed to the traditional organizations and institutions in the industrial society. Moreover, Castell considers that modern world is now in a situation where “the consequences of modernity are becoming more radicalized and universalized than before” (Castell).
Sassen considers that there are three major global cities in the world as a contrast to megacities. In her research she emphasized how the world economy needs special territorial insertions and financial resources. She keeps to the point that there are three global cities in the world. These are London, New York and Tokyo. Sassen’s theory is hierarchical and she considers that these cities belong to the first category of the classification of world cities. And although all of them are densely populated the notion of global city does not depend on it.