Why did Teotihuacan rise and decline as an imperial state?

Teotihuacan was one of the largest centers of Mesoamerica. Its rise and decline is closely intertwined with the socioeconomic relations of the city with Maya’s states. As the trade and economic change raised and declined the political, economic and military power of Teotihuacan raised and declined respectively (Armesto, p.134).

Why did the Roman Empire collapse in the west but survived in the east?

The western Roman Empire was exhausted economically and could not resist to the growing pressure from the part of barbaric tribes, while internal conflicts undermined the position of Rome in the west (Armesto, p.142). In fact, there was no power that could unite western Roman Empire which simply fell apart and was conquered by barbaric tribes. In contrast, eastern Roman empire preserved control over major economic centers and the emperor preserved its power.

Why was Ethiopia so prosperous in these centuries?

The prosperity of Ethiopia heavily relied on the revival of trade and economic growth in the country and the Eastern African region (Armesto, p.148). In such a way, the prosperity of Ethiopia relied on its growing economy and strengthening political influence of the country in the region.

Why were the Arabs to conquer such a vast empire so quickly?

The Arabs managed to conquer a vast empire due to their military supremacy over their opponents and their unity, while their opponents were weakened by internal conflicts and could not resist to a powerful conqueror (Armesto, p.153). In such a way, the Arabs, having Islam as an ideological basis uniting them, did not face a strong opposition and easily conquered a vast empire.

How did the Muslims treat conquered peoples and their cultures?

The Muslims attempted to assimilate the conquered people converting them into Islam. Otherwise, the conquered people were treated by the Muslims as infidel and, therefore, as their enemies.

Why did barbarian invaders have more impact on the Roman empire and India than they did on China?

The larger impact of barbarian invaders on the Roman empire and India was determined by the openness of both countries and their large contacts with other peoples, while China was traditionally aware of the danger from the part of Nomads and tended to isolationist policy (Armesto, p.161). As a result, China did not develop its contacts with barbarian tribes which it treated as inferior compared to Chinese people.



Why did Buddhism, Christianity and Islam become world religions?

Buddhism, Christianity and Islam became world religions because they emerged in countries, civilizations which dominated in large regions of the world and, what is more, India, Europe and the Arab world were the most advanced civilizations of the epoch (Armesto, p.165). Hence, their influence on other cultures was very significant and strengthened through invasions of other peoples.

How did commerce help spread religion in parts of Eurasia and Africa?

The commerce stimulated the cultural exchange which naturally resulted in the spread of religions, such as Christianity and Islam throughout Eurasia and Africa (Armesto, p.172). Thus, commerce accelerated the spread of religions.

Why did missionaries seek to convert rulers and elite?

Missionaries seek to convert rulers and elite because through such conversion they gained control over entire countries (Armesto, p.175). In fact, rulers and elite imposed their religion and ideology on large masses of people under their control.

How did Christian and Muslim rulers deal with religious minorities?

Religious minorities were oppressed by both Christian and Muslim rulers (Armesto, p.178), who viewed them as internal opposition and a threat to their power, while their religious views erroneous.

Why was monasticism more important for Buddhism and Christianity than for Islam?

Monasticism was more important for Buddhism and Christianity because these religions laid emphasis on the worshiping of their gods and better afterlife or new life, while for Islam actions of a person in the present life were basis for the happy afterlife (Armesto, p.184).

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