- October 9, 2012
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Research paper writing
Nowadays the problem of cyber criminals is very popular in our society. I’d like to accentuate our attention on this fact and describe cyber criminals’ situation in popular culture. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of how cyber criminals have been portrayed in popular culture over the years, how these portrayals correlate with real-world examples of cyber criminals, and how the use of generalized typologies are beneficial or detrimental to cyber crime prevention and investigation.
As we know, the computer is one of the most important revolutionary discoveries in the development of the technical-technological civilization. Informatics is a rather young science, but this science has a big future and is developing much faster than any other science. In only 50 last years’ have been created many devices for storage and processing of massive data. We know that progress can’t stop at one point and every month something new appears and something old is improved.Â I think that the sphere of computer technologies is the wonderful field for cyber criminals and new computer “genies” very often forget about the law and make criminal actions.
First of all I want to get acquainted you with the real situation and discuss it in the frames of our topic. The Ocinavsk charter of global informative society proclaimed that the World Association acknowledged that informative-communication technologies (IT) are one of the most essential factors, influencing on forming of new society. Their revolutionary influence touches the way of people life, their education and work, and also cooperation of government and civil society. The vitally important stimulus of development of world economy is quickly become IT. They also enable private individuals, firms and associations to carrying on entrepreneurial activity, more effectively and creatively to work out economic and social problems. All enormous possibilities are opened in the new century for law defenders. The same possibilities are opened and in the criminal organizations sphere. It is acknowledged in International convention of cyber criminals. Also these possibilities use extremist groupments, separative forces, preachers of ideas, conflicting with common to all mankind values, for propaganda of the ideology and conduct of informative wars. Not restrained state boundaries, the supporters of similar actions got an enormous audience for announcement of the positions. Similar sort of action by plan, it is fully fallen execution and results under determination of terrorist actions. The swift passing to the methods of electronic management technological processes gave foundation for appearance of the new type of terrorism based on these principles – cyberterrorism.
According to Csonka (2009)Â cyber crimes present the real threat to the interests of world association on the whole. Appearance of crimes in an informative sphere became direct investigation of swift development of computer technique and modern technologies. I can say that even government specified thus, that Interpol “possessed all possibilities, to find the most optimum decision of this problem”. The executive director of international constabulary organization Jean Michel’ Lubuten marked in the same queue, that “alone to decide the question of fight against crimes in the field of high technologies is impossible.”
I think that it will be interesting and even necessary to look at the person of cyber criminals. We will never meet them at the street in common life because in ordinary reality they are ordinary people but when they are working with their personal computer we will never see their faces. In many cases of cyber criminal actions we find out young people who were involved in this sphere by own wish or under the influence of certain circumstances. I want to describe the portrait of cyber criminals personalities from psychological point of view exactly in relate to young people. The process of socialization has dual character. One of its basic directions is making in the process of mastering of social experience and culture of valued-normative orientation of personality at which the orders of public norms are perceived by it as own vital settings. The process of socialization of personality includes education of active social responsibility: awareness of the debt personality in society, understanding of necessity of observance of social norms that, in final analysis, provides a normative conduct, high degree of the social breeding of a man, warning of different displays from his side.
Socialization of personality is a forming process in certain social terms. As a rule, already in childhood of persons joins in the historically folded system of public relations. Plugging of individual in social relations and named socialization which is carried out in the process of affecting man of such factors, as purposeful education, teaching, more frequent than all, casual social influences in activity and teaching. It is necessary to take into account that child of socialized not in passive way accepting different influences, but gradually passing from positions of object of social influence to position of active subject. All educators and parents must know that a child is active because the child has necessities, and if in the process of education these necessities are taken into account, and then it will be instrumental in development of activity of a child and forming of the harmoniously developed personality.
It is necessary to analyze such stage of socialization as individualization which includes juvenile and early youth age. A desire to find own way among other shows up in this age, quite often very critical attitude shows up toward the public codes of conduct. Preeminently youth age is characterized as steadily conceptual socialization which steady properties of personality are produced at. So, in March, 2000 Scotland Yard arrested two 18-years-old hackers. Availing Internet, they managed to get to the electronic systems of banks of the USA, Canada, Thailand and Great Britain, where information was kept about the credit cards of their clients. Housebreakers copied codes of 26 thousand proprietors of credit cards. The guilty declared that thus they tried to show the high class of domain computer technologies. Computer “genies” did not take advantage of the got information for enriching. However many specialists are think about this, that jars will have to expend the more than 3 million dollars of the USA with that to close 26 thousands accounts and produce new credit cards.
By the reason of computer crimes, accomplished in juvenile age, as a rule, there is aspiration of criminal to attain the state of autonomous viability, overcome dependence on anything or somebody, which is perceived as a threat its existence. Row of theories about motivation of criminal behavior abound facts, testifying that a minor criminal has a blank in development, not adapted socially, a pair is inherent them, group and individual conflicts. So, Parker (1983) in the researches discovered that children, exposed to violence, had been characterized the coevals as asocial.
Classification of criminals, as a rule, is conducted on certain criteria; the scientific foresight of possible criminal activity is used. Specialists push off from that a criminal is individual, unique personality. However grouped they can be, differentiate on the proper groups depending on certain criteria, public signs. The most serious attempts of classification of subjects of criminal acts are undertaken in six aspects:
1) the questions of forming and development of personality of criminal are examined in an etiologic aspect, reasons of delinquent development are analyzed (exogenous and endogenous factors, participating in forming of personality of criminal, differentiate);
2) extrovert types are analyzed in accordance with its main characteristics.
3) in clinical, foremost, psychiatric aspect, a basic criterion of estimation of personality is normality and abnormality (heartfelt healthy, psychopathy, mentally illness);
4) in a sociological aspect attention is spared position of criminal, relations in the conditions of public environment (professional and casual delinquent); to the basic sociological classification criteria behave: age, level of education, level of financial material well-being, social position, presence of family, social origin, employment publicly by useful work, line of business, presence of specialty, place of inhabitation;
5) in the aspect of prognostication at consideration and estimation of personality of criminal the possible and supposed prospects of conduct are taken into account.
6) in the mixed aspect come from typology of criminal activity and personality of criminal (for example, predisposition).
Psychological type of criminal, accomplishing computer crimes, it seems, it is necessary to complement research of description of mind.
His individuality shows up in a breadth, depth, independence, criticism, quickness and flexibility. Depending on combination of cogitative operations, forms of thought and maintenance distinguish three types of reflection of the real reality: artistic, intellect and middle. For persons, suspected of committing crime in the field of information technologies, characteristic is a cogitative type. Applying the method of projection of the module of signs, it is possible to outline the circle of persons, participating to the feasance of such type of crimes: follow concepts and abstractions operatively; possess abstract-theoretical thought. Very often such people are torn off from reality; it is important for them that their theoretical constructions were combined with logic of their conceptions, but as will lead itself here reality, touches them little.
The distinctive feature of teenagers, interested in the possible unlawful use of computer technologies, is ability to transform directly given in a concrete-vivid form, creating unusual combinations from the ordinary impressions. It is possible, due to the recreating form of creative imagination the stimulus of which can be a dream. A dream is appearances of the desired future, not incarnated directly in one or other products of activity. It can be the element of scientific foresight.
Youth aspiration to integrate, “blend” in society usually goes well, if properties of individual are accepted a group, society. If these properties are not accepted, then different variants are possible:
– Maintenance of the position and appearance of the Ð¿Ñ€Ð¾Ñ‚Ð¸Ð²Ð¾Ð¿Ñ€Ð°Ð²Ð½Ñ‹Ñ… co-operating with separate people, public foundations;
– change own character to become as all;
– conformism, i.e. external conciliation, adaptation.
In modern criminalistics literature the far of publications, devoted the method of construction of psychological type of unknown criminal appeared lately. However there is a row of negative circumstances in research of this problem:
1. In the theory of criminalistics there is not valuable, complex determination of person, committing crime in the field of information technologies. This category of criminals is studied in criminology aspect, i.e. not under such point of view, which exposes expression of personality descriptions of hacker in tracks of perfect by him crimes.
2. From traditional perception of method of analysis of criminal cases as method of collecting of empiric material, the method of interview at the study of personality of criminal is actually ignored, because of existent satisfied of his methodological insolvency (or with the purpose of maintenance of secret, non-proliferation of criminal technology).
3. In the structure of law enforcement authorities there is not an analytical center, specialized on the construction of psychological type of criminal (hacker).
Thus, to the number major tasks at forming of method of investigation of computer crimes, it is possible to attribute the tasks of providing of search, drafting of search tables, creation of the geographically conditioned module of psychological type of hacker.
An informative weapon can operate preferentially; it can be applied through transfrontal connections that can do impossible exposure of source of attack. Therefore an informative weapon can become an ideal mean for terrorists, and informative terrorism can become a threat existence of the whole states, that does the question of informative safety the important aspect of national and international safety, and the role of this aspect will only increase. One of displays of cyberterrorism are cybernetic protests.
Thus taking into account all above mentioned we can conclude that cyber criminals are the part of our technological world and we can mark out the main characteristics of cyber criminals. Getting hold the personal information of user and access to his bank accounts, cyber criminals, if speech goes about the large sums of money, use internet-mules, through the accounts of which the first transaction passes from account of victim. Mules, in same queue, send money on the third accounts, getting a certain percent for it. When the question is about shallow sums, stolen from accounts (200-500 dollars), then mainly money is translated directly on the accounts of malefactors direct transactions.
It became clear after the analysis of on-line tutorials of universities of Brazil, that Delphi is not included in the number of those languages programming which teach in universities. To program on Delphi it is possible to learn not in an university, but only on some courses on programming. It means that criminals not necessarily must have higher education and can be people young enough.
Circumstance that malefactors break up legitimate web pages, testifies that they work as a command. Every member of command has the specialization: writing of harmful code et cetera
Thus, on our suppositions, after cyber attacks Â on the clients of the banks lone not persons, but groups of cyber criminals, cost mainly, in which young people are included from poor families. Thirst of rapid making money determines maintenance of their life: to write a harmful code, infect users, steal money, and outlay them and again to get busy the same. It is a vicious circle, to break from which to the young people very difficultly.