- August 30, 2012
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Free essays
1. Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 ”“ 12 February 1804) was an 18th century German philosopher from the Prussian city of Konigsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He is considered as one of the most influential thinkers of current Europe and one of the late Enlightenment. He originated a new widespread perspective in philosophy through to the 21st Century. He also published significant works of epistemology, as well as works refer to religion, law, and history.
2. Kantianism is the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. The term Kantianism or Kantian is sometimes also used to portray present-day positions in philosophy of mind, epistemology, and ethics.
3. Hume’s skepticism. Nearly everybody loves to think that the incidents that we witness must have a cause. This directs people to trust they can easily identify this cause and stop thinking critically. That’s exactly what David Hume took notice. He ultimately declared that we never watch a “cause” but only a “conjuncture” of events. He also emphasized the dilemma of induction. No matter how many times we watch the same phenomena, it will never be enough to gain a universal law. Kant said that reading Hume “awoke me from my dogmatic slumber”.
4. Kant was the first to use the terms “analytic” and “synthetic” to divide propositions into two kinds. Analytic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is contained in its subject concept. Synthetic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is not contained in its subject concept.
Examples of analytic propositions, on Kant’s definition, include: “All triangles have three sides”.
5. A priori proposition: a proposition whose justification does not rely upon experience.
6. A posteriori proposition: a proposition whose justification does rely upon experience.
7. In Kant’s own terminology, space is nothing more than a ”˜form of intuition. Kant employs a similar argument to conclude that time, too, is a mere form of intuition. Space and time are features of the phenomenal world – the world as it appears to us – only.
8. In Kant’s philosophy, a category is a pure concept of understanding. A Kantian category is a feature of the appearance of any object in common, before it has been experienced.
They are: Quantity, Unity, Plurality, Totality, Quality, Reality, Negation, Limitation, Relation, Inherence and Subsistence (substance and accident), Causality and Dependence (cause and effect), Community (reciprocity), Modality, Possibility, Existence, Necessity.
Quantity is a type of property which subsists as magnitude or multitude. It is among the fundamental classes of things along with quality, substance, change, and relation. A quality is an attribute or a property. Some philosophers affirm that a quality cannot be defined. In modern philosophy, the idea of qualities and particularly how to differentiate certain types of qualities from one another stays controversial. Reality, in everyday usage, means “the state of things as they are actually existing” The term reality, in its widest sense, includes everything that is, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible.
A modal logic is any system of formal logic that tries to deal with modalities. Modals qualify the truth of a judgment. Traditionally, there are three “modes” or “moods” or “modalities” represented by modal logic, namely, possibility, probability, and necessity.
9 Noumenal world One of Kant’s main accomplishments is recognition of the phenomenal and noumenal, which together form the world. He claims that everything we can ever have knowledge of derives from experience and constitutes the phenomenal world. The noumenal world, however ”“where things are as they are in themselves independent of us ”“ is a world that we cannot know anything about since as soon as we use our senses in order to perceive something in it, we find ourselves in the phenomenal world. We are immediately aware of nothing except our own representations. Kant (1929,”Critique of Pure Reason” p.244-247)