- October 11, 2012
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Term paper writing
Information is the part of our life and every day, even every second we are looking for important information. People need different kinds of information and the most value information for person is that what they are looking for exactly in this moment.
The value of information depends from different moments and one moment includes tasks what can be solved with its help. It is important to have actual information during work in constantly changing conditions. If valuable and actual information is expressed in strange and incomprehensible words, it can be useless. Information becomes clear and understandable, if it is expressed a language, which those, who this information is intended talk on.
This work will be about information technology and how Ebay uses information technology to provide some aspect of its product or service to its customers. There are also a lot of questions which I want to discuss in my work, but all of them, as you understand, will be connected with the main question of our research and we will stop on different moments which help us to reveal topic more depth.
We understand that people can’t live without information and according to publicity needs appeared information technology. What does it mean “information technology”¯? For the answer on this question we should looked on this notion attentive and understand the main sense of it. Let’s do it in the next abstract and all takes their own places in our minds.
Information technology is combination of procedures, realizing the functions of collection, receipt, accumulation, storage, treatment, analysis and passing to information in an organizational structure with the use of facilities of the computing engineering, or, by other words, aggregate of processes of circulation and processing of information and description of these processes.
In such a way, at the choice of one or another method of data processing influencedĀ very plenty of factors, related both to the object of management influences and by the sensor-based system. The amount of possible variants of construction a technological computational process appears enough considerable.
Before we begin our research it is important to understand main aspects connected with the informational technology and their usage in different spheres of life. That’s why the next paragraph will be about the main components of informational technology.
First of all we should remember that information technology is based and depends on the technical, programmed, informative, methodical and organizational providing.
We will not look for details in these components meaning, only in few works described them for assimilations of got information.
The technical providing is the personal computer, technical means and equipment, flow lines, equipment of networks. Type of information technology, depending on technical equipped (hand, automated, remote) influences on collection, treatment and passing to information.
Development of the computing engineering does not stand in place. Becoming more powerful, the personal computers simultaneously become less dear and, consequently, accessible for the wide circle of users. Computers are equipped built-in of communication possibilities by speed modems, large volumes of memory, scanners, devices of voice recognition and handwritten text recognition.
Software, being in direct dependence on the technical and informative providing, will realize the functions of accumulation, treatment, analysis, storage, interface with a computer.
The informative providing is an aggregate of information, presented in a certain form for computer treatment.
The organizational and methodical providing is been complex of measures, directed on functioning of computer and software for the receipt of the sought after result.
Now I want to talk about basic properties of information technology. They are consists of 5 points and we should know all of them. In such a way basic properties include:
- presence of components and structure
- co-operating with an external environment
- development in time
Describing expedience it is possible to say that it is the primary objective of information technology realization which consists of increase of efficiency of production on the base of the use of modern computers, up-diffused processing of information, distributed databases, different informative computer networks by providing of circulation and processing of information.
Talking about components and structure we can select such components:
Ć¼Ā Ā Ā functional components are concrete maintenance of processes of circulation and processing of information;
Ć¼Ā Ā Ā structure of information technology
Remarkably, that structure of information technology is an internals, being intercommunications of formative it components, incorporated in two large groups: supporting technology and base of knowledge.
Models of subject domain are an aggregate of descriptions, providing the mutual understanding between users: by the specialists of enterprise and developers.
Supporting technology is an aggregate of vehicle facilities of automation, system and instrumental software, which the subsystems of storage and processing of information will be realized on the basis of.
The third property is co-operating with an external environment and its meant co-operating of information technology with the objects of management, interactive enterprises and systems, science, industry of program and technical facilities of automation.
The next property will be integrity – information technology is the integral system, able to decide tasks, peculiar to none of its components.
And at last we will say several words about realization in time. Realization in time is providing dynamic quality of development of information technology, its modification, change of structure, including of new components.
In such a way we talk about information technology components and their properties. After this little explanation paragraphs we can easily go to the topic of our work which connected with eBay.
And what is eBay and why it is so popular all over the world?
As we know eBay auction is the largest in the world auction in the Internet network. eBay is a respectable American company. It is one of the world market leaders in high-tech sphere, whose financial results impressed even worldly-wise experts in the last few years. The brand of eBay is officially acknowledged the dearest in the internet network, leaving behind such giants, as Yahoo! and Amazon, and capitalization of company on beginning of 2008 makes almost 80 milliards of dollars. On official statistics on eBay registered every 5th user of the internet network on a planet.
eBay auction exists from 1996, and from the foundation firmly retains positions of leader. Success is provided not only due to a publicity campaign – lightness and comfort for users plays the far not last role. To date more than 20-ti branches have eBay auction all over the world, more than two hundred million, hundreds of millions of point-of-sale authorized users. It is the internet big market on which daily there are millions of people, to purchase or sell one or another commodities. eBay auction firmly entered in life all of world the internet of association and now, as for example if a “search”¯ means “Google”¯, it is certainly “advantageous to purchase – to sell”¯ associated only with “eBay”¯.
eBay auction is a partner of such known worldwide companies, as IBM, Sun Microsystems, Visa, strategic partner Microsoft”¦ eBay has grandiose visited and enormous turns. Registration and membership is quite free of charge for all. Here all of types of businessmen – private individuals, representatives of shops and whole organizations, workings in the field of electronic trade work successfully.
The most often used description consists from such words:”¯ eBay Desktop is an application built on AIR that provides a better way to shop eBay, the world’s leading online marketplace. Features such as 1 click search filters, alerts, history, and feeds go beyond what is possible within the browser”¯.
In such a way eBay is famous all over the world and it cannot be so popular if it will not be used the last novelties of informational technology developments and improve the quality of their provided toed services. Due to this really good strategies eBay fully overmastering the western world, last years it becomes very popular even on in past Soviet union space. Among his users already hundreds of thousands of Russians, Ukrainians and other nations. What such tempting offers this American company to the users – you will ask probably. We will answer, eBay made revolution in a sphere the internet trade, with its help to purchase any commodity abroad (where many commodities on a few orders are cheaper) or selling the commodity began easily simply. By this network auction you can purchase with lightness, for example cellular telephone, fashionable glasses or clothes for other user of eBay from the USA, or to sell the rare books or picture the user of auction from Germany. Membership on eBay free of charge, and as soon as you (also free of charge) will be registered, before you the doors of the greatest point-of-sale ground will be opened in the world (and it is confessedly status of eBay) with millions of point-of-sale and most enormous solvent audience (if you will decide to sell independently).
I look through my words in which I described eBay auction and see that they are bright and I can explain why I talk about it in such way.
Frankly speaking I really like eBay auction and I think that idea to create such amazing internet market is very talented; even I can say that it is genius.Ā Sorry me for such emotional words and in next paragraphs I’ll be talking about the methods of looking for information which helps to eBay be so widespread and popular.
Information technology supposes ability competent to work with information and computing engineering. Nowadays we can’t even imagine how we can use internet without creating searching systems. Searching systems had a long history and it will be unimportant information for our research to stop on it.
Information technology consists of different components and includes different aspects. In fact, searching systems are one of them. We will not talk about the history of searching systems creating we will talk about them as an instrument for so successful eBay these systems usage.
As you remember, the searching systems (as well as algorithms of search) appeared long before distribution of the Internet, but exactly popularity of Network and circumstance that people, not having the special education and in principle not understandings computers or in logic, began constantly use the searching systems, became a shove for re-comprehension of role and task of the searching systems.
The searching systems gradually become the basic source of fast access to information for all of human kind (especially if to talk about its civilized subset). And the process of mans work by the searching system – the process of search – requires the most attentive and serious study, along and on equal rights with all of another ways of mental activity.
Thus now already obviously, that idea that user it is possible and it is needed to teach “correctly”¯, from point of the searching system, to make queries – no more than illusion. The searching system must search that he wants to find. On possibility, remaining within the framework of his model of searching process, his way of thinking. eBay spares this enormous attention and it helps to choose and provide correct business strategies. It is not an easy work to improve searching systems and need a big amount of information.
We know that people looking for a new opportunity in internet and it is more comfortable to buy or sell something at home. eBay gives such a wonderful opportunity to people and it changes the traditional relationship between customers and suppliers. You can stay at home and buy what you need in comfortable form, you need not go somewhere and looking for something. But”¦ stop for a minute”¦ you as a customer or supplier need not to do this due to the company which help you to make the process of buying or selling so pleasant. Returning to the main question of our research it is time to say that all responsibility for your comfort should eBay auction provide to you. That’s why usage of information technologies is so important and takes one of the first places in this company prosperous existence.
In this regard we will talk a little bit searching algorithms and how they help to simplify searching process.
A few classes of algorithms of search are known. The big majority from them is required preliminary indexing (algorithms of the inverted files, suffix trees, label). In the case of direct search, indexing is not required – man-hunted, by the successive viewing of documents, “in forehead”¯. The searching system of Yandex utilizes an index, based on the inverted files.
Inverted file – an enough simple concept with which clashed in ordinary life each of us is conceptual. Any index on the key field is the form of the inverted list. However, the inverted lists not necessarily must be realized on a computer
Clearly, that to work with a similar index much more effective, than without it. It is far simpler to find a necessary word in reference, where it is used, what to leaf through a book in a hope to find a word.
Certainly, the inverted index made in detail can be content with large. For diminishing of filesizes come running usually to two obvious receptions. The first reception consists in minimization of volume of information which is kept in the inverted file. Simpler speaking, all of superfluous retires – remains only that is indeed needed for big majority of queries. The second reception consists in pointing of relative addresses – for every position its absolute not address, but difference of addresses, is memorized between current and previous position.
For the greatest efficiency a file is packed (codes of Golomba and other not very much hard algorithms of packing), however utilized effective algorithms of compression, as a rule, are not – winning in volumes is extremely insignificant, and processor time is ineffective expended on crosscutting of information.
As a rule, the size of the cased inverted file is made by from 7 to 30 percents from a source code.
So, to find something, the searching system carries out two almost independent processes: indexing (receipt of documents, their processing, maintenance of index) and search. An index is arranged so that a search worked maximally quickly and high-quality. Found everything, that is needed, all is correct ranged and gave out a maximum of useful information, necessary for the process of search.
Critical from point of economy of the searching systems is, strangely enough process of search, and quite not indexing, because for an answer for millions of queries in days, even coming running to the unbelievable devices, not to do without bulky computer complexes.
Thus, main factor, determining a size cluster – exactly searching loading. This is important to mean, at an attempt to understand every oddities and other unpleasant features of the searching systems.
So, what does take a place with documents at indexing, and with queries at their implementation? What way must go to each other documents and queries, that in the end a necessary document appeared in a necessary list, in that in which it is searched the most “necessary”¯ query? All these questions will be answered in following paragraphs.
Due to information above we know that it is needed to work with searching systems, but let’s think why it is so important. We know that eBay very attentively watches for their improvement and hired only the best specialists for these purposes.
Why is it needed to work with the searching systems, when so many other publicity grounds are? The number of pages more than habitants on Earth in the Internet, and finding information without the use of certificate services (search engines) is almost impossible. Users understand it, and the role of the searching systems grows with every year: they are utilized for finding out new sites, for the search of commodities, for establishment of contacts with partners. Researches show that visitors from search engines in oftentimes more frequent become buyers, what users, comings on the banner advertising. When we look for something we find a lot of variants with the word what was written and when we looking for some thing or we want to buy something we have lot variants. eBay specialists should do their best to be the part of this list and be the first part of it.
If a site wants to get the interested visitors and income, it must be in the results of search on having a special purpose queries. And it is not simple to be present, but to be on the top or second page of results of search, because most users do not go along.
Go further in our research we find information about Internet marketing and advancement of site. Let’s analyze this information and the process of site advancement. eBay auction actively use all these rules and principles and it help to be always on the searching top. These recommendations can be used by every company and will help to raise brand recognition.
Advancement of site in the searching systems is component part of internet marketing. Advancement does not replace other types of marketing and advertising, it is only very effective direction for most types of business, that is confirmed researches and questioning.
Before the user will become a client, he must know about a site. Is your site created recently? In obedience to research of Forrester Research, 73,4% users are found by new sites through the searching systems.
The point of view is widespread, that searching machines serve only for bringing of visitors around to a site, but does not quite suit for the aims of strengthening of brand and imaginary advertising. It is faithful partly, because a query on the topic of site is set only by those users which realized the necessity, but does not yet know where (or as) it can be satisfied is only small part of all of target audiences.
But if knowledge is important about a company in this group of users, here are not equal search engines. As research of NPD Group shows, users without prompts (spontaneous knowledge) in five times better remember the company, meeting in the results of search name, what if will see it in the banner advertising, and in 2,5 time better at the choice of brand from a list (pointed knowledge).
Our research is coming to the end, but I want to pay your attention on one more aspect which for my opinion is necessary for the good company work. It is a information technology service management.
Conception of quality of informative services (Information Technology Service Management – ITSM) management arose up as a result of principle change the today’s role of IT-groups. Business-process is so closely tied up with appendixes, technical resources and activity of personnel of departments of automation, that efficiency last appears one of decision factors of efficiency of company on the whole.
Information technologies against which a company leans in everyday work are constantly complicated, a corporate infrastructure grows and requires considerable efforts for the maintenance in the capable of working state. And business groups want, that IT-mechanisms worked as a clock, serving them with the proper quality and at optimum expenses.
The basic idea of introduction of ITSM consists of that IT-department left off to be an auxiliary element for basic business of company, accountable only for work of separate servers, networks and appendixes, “somewhere and somehow”¯ used in a company. The department of automation becomes the competent participant of business, playing the role of provider of certain services for business groups, and relations between them formulate as relations a “provider of services is an user of services”¯. Business groups formulates the requirements to the necessary spectrum of services and their quality, guidance of company is determined by the volume of financing for implementation of these requirements, and subdivisions of automation support and develop the informative infrastructure of company so that it was able to provide the inquired favor with the set quality.
In order that to do reality this ideal picture, it is necessary to teach IT-division to work newly, to pass from a management the separate informative resources of company to the management services which on these resources are based. To leave off to perceive the personnel of other departments only as the users, adjust Ā relationships with them as with customers.
For example, your company wants to have the automated process of exposure of accounts, that, from point of IT-department a favor, which will be realized through some aggregate of the personal computer, server, appendixes and network, will possess certain descriptions of reliability, to the productivity, time of response, and the grant of this favor will be controlled, on results control reports will be formed in clear a customer book-keeping terms. This method will possess, finally, by a certain prime price, depending on reliability, productivity and, possibly, other descriptions. In this regard, a customer will know about that, what charges will be entailed by necessary him quality, and, it is possible to hope, will pull out IT-department the real requirements, and that, in same queue, will be able to organize the work, coming from the real priorities.
So, ITSM implies native reorganization of service exploitation of information technologies. We talk a lot about eBay, but there is another example for this. Leaning against world experience, a company Hewlett-Packard developed a model case quality of informative services frame, so-called ITSM Reference Model. A model in detail describes processes and intercommunications between them, which must support IT-department, to give informative services with the assured quality.
And for the last I want to tell you that key elements of ITSM are processes, personnel, technologies.
Ideology of ITSM reposes on three points:
Ć¼Ā formalization of processes of functioning of information technologies;
Ć¼Ā professionalism and clear responsibility of employees of IT-department for the certain circle of tasks;
Ć¼Ā technological infrastructure of providing of quality of services: actually information technologies, service of support of users, service of management configurations and changes, checking of services system, service of testing and introduction of new services et cetera
Decision for success of introduction of ITSM is the first element – development of production processes of IT-department, determining the sequence of executions of personnel in certain situations, co-ordinating work of all of employees, services and subdivisions of automation.
IT-divisions constantly inculcate new technologies, yet more complicate the informative infrastructure of company. However much more effective systems in itself will not provide business necessary services with the required quality, if the processes of the use of such systems are not certain.
Therefore a major constituent of realization of ITSM is development of formalized processes of IT-department. For every process the sequence of implementation of works, necessary resources and expenses of time, facilities of automation and control of quality, are determined. Detailed working each IT-process individually and all of IT-process together will provide the concerted work of business groups and services automation.
Summarizing all information of this work I want to say that informational technologies has a big future and they are very important for work and prosperous existence of many companies.