- May 5, 2014
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Term paper writing
Gas emissions into the atmosphere have already destroyed the 9% of the ozone layer, which is the main protector of the earth from ultraviolet rays. The size of “ozone hole” is the similar to the area of ”‹”‹the United States. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), currently there are about 500 thousand chemical compounds used in the world. 40 thousand chemical compounds are harmful to the health and 12 thousand are poisonous. Acid downfalls cause the degradation of forests. Many harmful substances in atmosphere come from car exhaust. Their amount of air pollution is growing, in Russia there are more than 30%, while in the U.S. – more than 60% harmful substances into the atmosphere (Stanic, 2012). Household waste also became a major problem: solid waste, plastic bags, synthetic washing materials, etc. Piles of tin cans, broken glass and other rubbish dumps along roads, littered area, and disabled nature are the result of the continued domination of the industrialized world.
Despite the efforts and the big costs to prevent the negative effects of human impact on nature, the general tendency of unfavorable changes remains. The real solution of the environmental crisis lies in changes in the man’s industrial activity, his way of thinking and living. Scientific and technological progress creates the “overload” for nature. However, it helps prevent the negative impact, creates an opportunity for cleaner production in the most advanced resource-saving and waste-free technologies. Such technologies should be built on the principle of a closed cycle. Thus, today there appeared an urgent need and real conditions for serious changes of technological civilization. It should get the nature of environmental. One of directions of this development is the creation of waste production. With advances in science, technological process can be arranged in the way that the waste does not pollute the environment. It again comes into the production cycle as secondary raw materials. Nature provides example itself: carbon dioxide emissions from animals are absorbed by plants that produce oxygen for animals to breathe. Waste production is a production in which all the raw materials are finally turned into one or another product. If to consider that modern industry turn 98% of the raw materials into waste, the necessity of the task to create waste production becomes clear (Kolar, 2012). Calculations show that 80% of waste from heating, mining, coking industries may be re-used in the production process. Products derived from them are often much better than products made from raw materials. For instance, the ash of thermal power plants, used as an additive in the manufacture of aerated concrete, raises the strength of the building panels and blocks in about twice. The development of nature restoring sectors (forestry, water, fisheries, etc.) is of great importance. Material and energy-saving technology, all kinds of savings reduce the “pressure” on the nature.
It is evident, that really good solution for the conflict between the progress of civilization and the environment has not yet provided. Nevertheless, it is clear that for growth and development of civilization technical and technological progress is important (the first necessary condition) and clean living environment is required (the second necessary condition).
The influence of the first necessary condition on the second one is impossible to avoid but because the change in the environment for the humanity development is obligatory, it is necessary to make these changes positive. This is a requirement for a future decision of the ecological crisis (Hilltrekker, 2010).
Ecology should not be an obstacle for the progress. Ecology should be (first of all, on people’s mind) – a compass and an assistant of the progress. This tandem is a necessary and sufficient condition for long-term physical development of civilization. To avoid all possible conflicts, contradictions with the nature it is necessary to implement forecast based on evidences. This forecast would have made it possible to foresee and predict the effects of relationship with nature.
Scientific and technological progress is an interrelated progressive development of science and technology. It is manifested in the constant impact of scientific discovery and inventions in the art and technology, and the use of new instruments and equipment. It affects the modification and development of labor equipment and human relations in the production process.
Scientific and technological progress is a powerful tool for the rapid growth of the economy. It helps in solving many social problems. The rate of implementation of its achievements and efficiency largely depend on the development and logic implementation of public policy based on science in this field.
The implementation of scientific discoveries in the use of natural resources, development and formation of the productive forces of society is really unlimited. Under certain conditions, with the help of science nature can service for production and the manufacturing process can be represented as the technological implementation of science.
The real expression of scientific and technological progress is a continuous improvement of machinery, tools and other means of production. It also includes the introduction of advanced technology and production organization. Mechanical means of labor play particularly important role in the development of science and technology. They are one of the main elements of the productive forces of society. They increasingly contribute to the development of scientific and technical progress and growth of production. They contribute to the cost of public labor, rational and efficient use of labor resources (Ogwyn, 2000).
The current environmental situation is such that all who carry out scientific and technical progress and uses its achievements face the urgent requirement to consider strictly the problem of nature. It also means not to exceed the limits of possibility of natural processes restoring, to make a comprehensive and deep study of the complex and interrelated natural phenomena, not to aggravate the negative conflict with natural laws, so as not to cause irreversible processes in the environment.