Preparing an Interpretive Essay “The Old Man and the Sea”

The Old Man and the Sea is a novel of a man’s fight against adversity, which incorporates three major battle fields: the inner world of Santiago, the struggle of Santiago with the power of nature, and the struggle of Santiago with his poverty and hardships at the end of his life and the main character successfully keeps his fight on due to his spiritual power since his physical forces are running out.


Introduction the introduction includes the explanation of the major theme of The Old Man and the Sea, which is the theme of struggle. It is important to explain that there are three directions of the struggle: the inner world of Santiago, his struggle with nature, sharks, sea, etc. and his ongoing struggle with poverty, which forces him to put his life at risk.

The struggle of Santiago with poverty the description of the life of Santiago in the village. Unbearable conditions of living reveal his extreme poverty. Nevertheless, Santiago keeps fishing to survive. Thus, his poverty pushes him to work, but he is never giving in, he is never asking for help and relies on himself solely.

The struggle of Santiago with nature Santiago fights with the overwhelming power of nature. He is too weak to defend his fish, but still he is fighting and shows that he will fight as long as he has any force in his arms and body.

The internal struggle the struggle of Santiago with physical exhaustion and unbearable conditions reveal the power of his spirit. He runs out of forces, but his spirit is still alive and kicking.

Conclusion due to the spiritual power Santiago keeps fighting and winning.

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