- March 11, 2013
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Term paper writing
Demography. In the United States there are 41% single men, 40% families, 14% single women, and 5% youth. The majority of homeless families in the U.S. consist of an unmarried woman with her children.
Demographics Ethnic. There are 49% African-American, 35% white, 13% Latin American, 2% Native American and 1% Asian or descendants. In the U.S., about 500,000 veterans experienced the condition of “homelessness” at some time during the year. Veterans Affairs is an organization that provides housing only to U.S. war veterans chronically ill. Also it should be noted that physical disabilities that make it difficult or impossible for a person to find work are often common among homeless people.
In Australia the census of 2001 100.000 homeless in Australia is 58% male, 42% female
36% between 12 and 24 years, 10% under the age of 12 years, 8.5% Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, 23% in the dorms, 49% with friends and relatives, 14% sleep outdoors, and 14% are in facilities funded by the SAAP.
Common causes are violence in the home and family (22%), eviction (11%), breaking of family relationships (11%), usual accommodation unavailable (11%), and financial difficulties (10%). The following statistics indicates the approximate average of homeless people at any time of year. Each country has a different approach to counting homeless people, so any type of comparison should be done with care.
European Union: 3,000,000 (UNICEF 1998);
United States: 750,000 (UNICEF 1998);
Canada: 200,000 (CBC News December 1998);
Australia: 99,000 (ABS: 2001 Census).
According to INSEE, there are about 90,000 homeless in France. They are hard to count because the undocumented and invisible are complicated to list. As a fact, 17% of them are women and 20% are under 25 years. Among the homeless aged 16 to 18 years, the proportion of women reaches 70%.
United States. The phenomenon of homelessness in the United States covers a different reality and complementary to that found in Europe. In 2005, a French sociologist, professor in the U.S. (at the University of California, Berkeley), compares the French situation and the U.S., taking the reader into a ghetto of Chicago and a city deprived the industrial suburb of Paris: Urban Outcasts. Ghetto, suburbs, state, published by Palgrave in 2006, shows that “marginality is not everywhere the same woven fabric” and emphasizes the role of the state in the matter.
We distinguish the homeless in the U.S., SDF economic and sedentary, representing approximately three million people in 20,008 years, and hobos, workers moving from city to city. The hobos are part of American culture, surrounded by a certain romanticism in the assessment is made of the homeless. Even today, some people choose to live the hobo life. Some people who have lived the hobo life are famous: John Steinbeck, Jack London, George Orwell, Seal and Robert Mitchum.
Japan. The number of homeless has risen sharply in Japan since the 1990s and the lost decade that followed the bursting of the speculative bubble in Japan. In 2003, during the first study Japan had officially 25,296 homeless, the number has been declining since. In January 2009, Japan had officially more than 15,759 homeless. Osaka Prefecture has the most homeless: 4302 followed by 3428 with Tokyo, Kanagawa and Fukuoka with 1804 with 2379.
There are only 800 childcare places in Tokyo, which were added twenty-five beds hiver emergency. Tokyo in 2004 launched a reintegration policy by offering to place homeless for two years in housing for 3000 yen per month (about 20 Euros), supported almost all. Having an address, former homeless people may seek and find stable employment: in 1800 they are taking advantage of this program in 2009.
The number of homeless people in the world has grown rapidly in recent years. In some Third World nations such as Brazil, India, Nigeria and South Africa, the plight of the homeless is striking, with millions of children who live, work and play in the street. Homelessness persists so overwhelming in the cities of China, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines, despite their growing prosperity, mainly due to migrant laborers from the countryside who have problems to find a permanent home for the growing and deepening income inequality between social classes. It is difficult to determine the race that dominates in the statistics of homelessness. There are different nationalities in different countries that are representatives of homeless people.
Homeless people in Western countries have significantly higher rates of mental health disorders than in other countries. These results give a systematic review and analysis of Oxford University, UK. Experts examined 29 studies conducted over the past four decades, with more than 5 thousand homeless people in the U.S., Britain, Continental Europe and Australia. Serious mental disorders were generally more common among homeless, especially in Western Europe.
Most of the homeless suffer from drug and alcohol – 37.9% and 24.4% respectively. In addition, it was observed that there were increased rates of alcoholism in this category of citizens for the last decade. Homeless people suffer from psychosis and they are more likely than other vulnerable populations, including prisoners and refugees, who often recorded in depression. As the experts say University of Melbourne, Australia, that mental illness and personality disorder among homeless people is 10 times more often.
In 2007, there were more than a million homeless people. In addition to physical health problems, the unprotected groups at risk of developmental and psychiatric diseases and high probability of premature death in most cases of tuberculosis and HIV. That is why, because of this social category has no overall support and services. Health experts expect further growth in levels of mental illness among the homeless. This negative trend is also linked to rising crime and suicide.
The humanitarian aspect of homelessness is the main reason the attention of scientists to it. In violation of homelessness is seen first of all human rights of people. According to the UN, the world’s estimated 100 million homeless and 1 billion people are living in inadequate conditions (slums). Homelessness is perceived badly not only in developing countries, but also in economically developed countries. In the U.S., 3 million and 5 million homeless people are at risk of homelessness. It is contrary to the human right to housing is enshrined in the Social Charter of the European Union, in the constitutions of many states, including the Russian Federation.