- April 2, 2012
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Sample essay papers
The Poverty population. Causes of Poverty.
In 2003, for instance, 35.9 million were poor (it is about 12.5 percent of the U.S. population) pursuant to the official measure[i]. Poverty lines are meaningly higher if we use a general relative measure. As it is known fully, poverty is more spreading among some demographic subgroups ”“ such as minorities, female-headed families, children and people with less education, ”“ regardless of the poverty measure used. Poor persons are as well; no wonder that, considerably more probably to give a report of physical difficulties, such as from time to time not having enough diet to dine or failing utility paying. Nevertheless, both poor and rich American people report in the same way that they have fundamental consumer items such as refrigerators and TVs. Proofs from researches looking at the dynamics of poverty shows that, most of people who become poorer continue to be in poverty for just a short time. However, a lot of families often fall into poverty and move out of poverty, and an important proportion of the poor as well undergo long-dated poverty spells.[ii] Researches display that the huge number of children who grow up needy do not continue to be so when they become adults. However, when they become adults, they are more probably to remain poor than those children who did not grow up poor. Poverty differs extensively through states and has become focused on cities during the last several decades, nevertheless some country regions of poverty continue to exist.
Some consent that people which live in high-poverty neighborhoods (and in remote country regions) are not just spatially insulated from mainstream society but frequently socially insulated too. A lot of problems relating to city, such as welfare dependency, drug use, crime and substandard educational outcomes, are more general in high-poverty regions. When collating poverty in the USA with poverty in countries around the world, two things find out.
First poverty in undeveloped countries qualitatively varies from that in developed countries and the USA. In poor countries, specifically in Africa and South Asia a lot of people fail to earn even $2 a day. Second, as long as the United States has practically the highest gross national product (GNP) per capita in the world, it has higher rates of both absolute and relative poverty than different rich countries in Western and Northern Europe. It as well has higher rates of relative poverty than just about all countries in Europe. Comprehending the work of economic system and social disparity is necessary for elucidating why poverty subsists and why individuals of some groups are more probably to be poor than others.[iii] For instance, aspects that form the racial-ethnic gap in poverty during the last several decades contain not just dissimilarities in educational achievement and the influence of female-headed families but as well disparity, discrimination and residential segregation. Nowadays, economic dislocation, wealth differentials, family instability and past poverty are obstacles at the minimum as significant as discrimination and racism in interpreting poverty rates among minority groups. However, in spite of this advance ethnic and racial inequality continues to be a crucial problem in the United States. While distinction against women in the labor market has as well decreased, gender dissimilarities in poverty and earnings have not vanished. Single-parent families managed by women are more probably to be poor than other types of family on account of the fact that they encounter the problem of providing the necessities of a family on one income. These women have lower levels of education because of their lower earning and they as well do not get sufficient child support from the absent father.
[i] “Extended Measure of Well-Being: Meeting Basic Needs”, Current Population Reports, series P 70-67. Washington, DS: US Government Printing Office.
[ii] Bane, Mary Jo, and David Ellwood “Slipping into and out of Poverty: The Dynamics of Spells”, Journal of Human Resources 21 (winter).
[iii] In Meritocracy and Economic Inequality, edited by Kenneth Arrow, Samuel Bowels and Steven Durlauf, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
1) Axelrod-Contrada Joan, Poverty in America: Cause or Effect, 2010.
2) Iceland John, a Handbook: Poverty in America, 2006.
3) Arrighi Barbara A., Maume David J., Child Poverty in America Today, 2007.
4) Marcus Anthony, Where have all the homeless gone, 2006.
5) Kelso William A., Poverty and the underclass: Changing Perceptions of the Poor in America, 1994.
6) Gans Herbert J., The war against the poor: the underclass and antipoverty policy, 1998.
7) Katie Benner, Hard at work but can’t buy food, December 24, 2004.