- July 31, 2012
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Sample essay papers
The foreign policy of the USA is determined by the President and is carried out by the State Department at the head of the Secretary of State.Ā The basic principles of the U.S. foreign policy were proclaimed the following: to create the secure world and to spread democracy for the sake of the American people and the peoples of the whole world. One of the approaches in U.S. foreign policy is Soft Power Policy. “Soft Power”¯ is an ability of any state to get the desirable results in foreign affairs through persuasion but not by means of suppressing, imposing or urging. “Soft Power”¯ impels the other countries to follow the certain standards of behavior and international scene’s institutions or to achieve their own consent to follow the latter. Virtually the countries which adhere to a policy of Soft Power reach the good results without any constraint (although we can observe some alternative here).
The terrorist attacks of 9/11 were of great effect on the subsequent development of U.S. foreign policy.
The historians are of the opinion that this date marked the beginning of the new era in the mankind history. The new phase (period) set in the development of international relationships.
The American authorities’ reaction to that act of terrorism was acute. 9 days later the new doctrine in the sphere of the struggle against terrorism was adopted which has been followed till nowadays. All the aggressive foreign policy of the USA is in the frames of the above-mentioned doctrine. It is known as “Bush Doctrine”¯. Its principal propositions were formulated by George Bush in his speech to the US Congress.
This doctrine is based on one axiom and two lemmas. The axiom is the American unsurpassed fire superiority, which gives an opportunity to the USAĀ to stick to Preventive War Conception. In particular the USA have a chanceĀ to strike air bombing attacks until the aggressive military operations are undertaken with regard to the USA and its allies. All this allows America not to take into consideration other countries’ points of view (Richard Falk).
Alongside with that a priori the USA decline to hold negotiations to terrorist organizations and the states which grant refuge and help the terrorists. The USA includes on the list the states using their own criteria but not the international ones. The countries which support the terrorists must be identified and isolated. The USA have to take great pains for that inclusive military operations which are Ā directed at changing of ruling regimes. All these actions are carried out as if to defend democracy, freedom and to guarantee peoples’ safety. After the change of the regime the USA should help those states to found the democratic society.
In the shortest possible time a number of laws were passed in accordance with the last events, which touched upon not only the terrorists organizations. The New Bill made the penalties much more severe for the terrorist actions and conferredĀ the emergency powersĀ on rendering harmless of the enemies of the American state. Even the unintentional help toĀ Ā terrorists is considered the criminal offence (Gingrich N.).
The above-mentioned sets of laws gave the unlimited possibilities on listening to telephone conversations, using special electronic devices to spy the people, to check and to control the information which pass through the networks. The bank secret cannot limit the law-enforcement bodies if they need to expose some shadow millioner’s account. “Potential”¯ foreign terrorists’ procedure of deportation was simplified. The Congressmen Circle which had access to information of such kind was narrowed.
The American society was shocked by the acts of terrorism and almost unanimously encouraged the strongest measures. Before 9/11 such measures would have caused the resentment in common people and indignation defenders of Human rights. The only thing which is not demanded in the USA is capital punishment. Now nearly no one in America considers attack to democracy theĀ Ā FBI’s proposition to use tortures to learn the truth. Moreover the prisoners’ confessions which were obtained at the cruel examinations cannot be taken into account by the Court.Ā In fact many theses from the new amendments to the laws are the direct violation of human rights.
In 2006 the White House published the official certificate which summed up the Bush Doctrine for the last 5 years.
Its principle achievements are the following, “The force campaigns in Iraqi and Afghanistan let to liberate more than 50 million people from the power of cruel aggressive regimes, which turned their countries into bases for terrorists.
The elections were held and the legal governments work in both countries”¯. Besides more than 75% of al-Qaida leaders were arrested or eliminated.
The U S President B. Obama announced about a new style in US foreign policy: “The USA aren’t about to play the role of the world gendarme and prefer co-operation with other countries to “forcible”¯ democracy”¯. In his next speech President Obama declared: “The USA are ready to respect democracies in the authoritarian countries.”¯