Evolution of Basketball

Basketball is a dynamic and spectacular sport that allows getting good exercise and learning to work as a team. It is possible to play basketball all year round: in summer – outdoors in winter – in the sports hall. There are basketball baskets at almost any indoor playground.

Basketball is a rare example of a popular sport that has a creator and date of occurrence. James Naismith, the teacher of the American College invented it in 1891. Working as a physical education teacher, he noticed that in winter, when all classes are held in the sports hall, students get bored doing the same exercises. Naismith recalled a childhood game «duck-on-a-rock», in which it was necessary to throw a stone on top of another, larger stone. He gave a ball to the students and hanged baskets without bottom to the opposite balcony in the sports hall.

In 45 years basketball became a part of the Olympic Games (Bazanov, 2006). Now basketball is one of the most popular sports. It received its greatest development in the U.S., home of the National Basketball Association championship, but in other countries it is also very popular. Basketball is a beautiful and powerful play, with thought-out and clear game rules and strong players.

In the beginning the rules were formulated by Dr. Naismith and they consisted of only 13 points. As time passed, and the essence of the game changed, respectively, the rules changed as well. In 1932 the first international rules of the game were adopted at the first Congress of FIBA, and then these rules are often changed and corrected (Arbena, 2001). In 1998 and 2004 significant changes have been done in rules, but the last corrections have been made in 2010. Basketball rules, uniforms and equipment have changed over time due to technology advances.

Rules evolution

On April 17, 2010 FIBA Central Bureau, located in the town of San Juan in Puerto Rico approved the next edition of the rules of basketball, which came into force on October 1, 2010. Now this edition is the most advanced and most finalized. What has changed in the rules of basketball this time?

The new rules of basketball related with court marking.  

The European court markings practically ceased to exist, becoming American ones. Three-second zone no longer resembles a trapezoid in shape, and turned into a rectangle, which all the fans of the NBA are used to. Three-point line moved at a range of 6.75 meters from the point on the floor directly under the center of the opponents’ basket to the outer edge of the semicircle. By analogy with the NBA marking, semicircle goes to the parallel lines in the corner of the court. Another two new lines to throw the ball appeared. Two lines of 0.15 m in length must be marked outside the playing court for the sideline opposite the scorer’s table, while the outer edges of these lines must be located at a distance 8.325 m from the inner edges of the nearest front lines.

The second significant change in the marking is applied to a semi-circular ring under the basket in which contact foul is not recorded.  The lines of semi-circles, in which contact fouls are not recorded, shall be marked on the playing court and bounded by semi-circle of radius 1.25 m, measured from a point on the floor directly below the center of the basket to the inside edge of the semicircle. This semicircle is connected by two parallel lines, perpendicular to the front line, in length 0.375 m, the inner edge of which is located at a distance of 1.25 m from the point on the floor directly below the center of the basket, and ends at a distance of 1.20 m from the inner edge of the end line. In the semi-circles, in which contact fouls are not recorded, imaginary lines that connect the edge of the parallel lines (length 0.375 m) directly under the right sides of boards are included (Women’s Basketball in France, 2010). The lines are not part of semicircles areas, in which contact fouls are not recorded.

According to new rules, areas of semicircles, in which contact fouls are not recorded, are applied to the playing court in order to designate specific areas for treatment of cases of contact / blocking under the basket. In any game situation the passage in the area of a semicircle, in which contact fouls are not recorded, contact, caused by the attacker against the defender, located inside the semicircle, should not be penalized as foul to the attacker, except for situations when the forward uses its hands, feet or body wrong.

Now this rule is of great importance for increasing the entertainment of basketball, because one can complete the passage of a powerful leap without fear of a foul because of a contact with the defender, who suddenly appears under the basket.

The new basketball rules related with the uniform and accessories of the player.

A uniform of the team should consist of”¦ one dominant color of socks for all players of the team.

New technologies have made basketball players using new equipment. Plaster casts or braces, even if they are covered with soft material are in the list of prohibited items.

Items that left among permitted are:

– Compressed sleeves of the same dominant color as the T-shirts have.

– Compressed stockings of the same dominant color as the shorts have. For the top of the legs they should not be below the knee and for the lower of legs not to be above the knee.

– Colorless cap for the jaw.

– Clear tapes for the hands, shoulders, legs, etc. (Women’s Basketball in France, 2010).

The new basketball rules related with time counting.

The first interesting new rule is:

When the game clock is 0:00.3 or more, the player that established the possession of the ball after a throw-in or in the selection after the last or the only one free throw-in, has the opportunity to perform a throw-in from the game. If the game clock showed 0:00.2 and 0:00.1, the only way to throw the ball from the game is to finish off, or just throw on top.

With the development of the basketball rules, the Rule of 8 seconds was introduced.

Each time when:

– The player takes control of a live ball in his backcourt,

– If at throw-in the ball touches or the ball is legally touched by any player in the backcourt and in a team of a player making throw-in, continues to control the ball in its backcourt, the team must move the ball in its frontcourt within eight seconds (Euroleague Basketball, 2010).

According to new rules, the team moves the ball in its frontcourt when:

– The ball touches or the ball is touched by forward, which is in contact with the frontcourt with his both feet.

– The ball touches or the ball is legally touched by defender, which is in contact with its backcourt with the part of his body.

– The ball touched the referee, who has part of his body in the frontcourt of the team, controlling the ball.

– During the conduct from the backcourt to the frontcourt ball and player, with his both feet, are in contact with the frontcourt.

– The count of eight seconds continues with any remaining time at the moment of stopping.

In accordance with Rule 24 seconds:

Each time when:

– The player controls a live ball on the court,

– If at throw-in the ball touches or the ball is legally touched by any of the players on the playing court and a team of a player making throw-in continues to control the ball, the team must perform the field goal within twenty-four seconds (Euroleague Basketball, 2010).

According to new rules, the referee can stop the game:

– When the foul or violation (but not when the ball goes outside the court) performed by a team, that does not control the ball,

– In any other reason related to the team, that does not control the ball,

– For whatever reason, not related with any team, then the right to possession of the ball should be given the same team that previously had control of the ball.

If the throw-in is carried out in the backcourt, the readings on twenty-four seconds shall be reset to twenty-four seconds.

If the throw-in is carried out in the frontcourt, the readings on twenty-four seconds must be set as follows:

– If at the time of stop of play on twenty-four seconds there are fourteen seconds or more left, the readings should not be dropped, and the count should continue from the time of the stop.

– If at the time of stop of play on twenty-four seconds there are thirteen seconds or less left, then the readings should be reset to fourteen seconds.

However, if in the opinion of the referee, the opposite team will be placed at a disadvantage, the count of twenty-four seconds should continue from the time of the stop.

A few new developments:

– The throw-in is the process of moving a live ball, when the player controlling the ball, throws, beats, rolls it on the floor or deliberately throws the ball into the shield.

– If in the tournament the team loses the game again by “deprivation of rights,” it shall be disqualified from the tournament, and the results of all games played by this team must be terminated.

– During the last two minutes of the fourth period and during the last two minutes of each extra period after a timeout, taken by the team entitled to possession of the ball in its backcourt, a throw-in shall be taken outside the court from the line opposite to the scorer’s table of the throw in the frontcourt team (Euroleague Basketball, 2010).

Advanced technical equipment

Due to technology advances technical equipment for the basketball play has also changed. Now for a basketball game the host team shall provide the following technical equipment for a referee team:

– The game clock and stopwatch. The referee timekeeper is provided with the game clock and a stopwatch. Game clock is used for the reference of the exact time of the game periods and the intervals between them. This watch is settled so that all those involved in the game can clearly see it. For requested timing intervals, the so-called time-outs, a stopwatch, is used but not the game clock (GameLocator, 2006).

– The device of counting thirty seconds. The referee-operator is equipped with such a device

– Signals. To alert different signals the special equipment that would provide at least two signals with different levels of volume is needed. These signals must be powerful, so they can be easily heard in a noisy environment of the hall.

– The scoreboard. The hall should be equipped with a scoreboard, it must be clearly visible to all who are directly involved in the game, as well as spectators.

– Report. At all official competitions organized by FIBA, the report in the form approved by the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) is mandatory.

– Player foul pointers. Secretary of the competition should have pointers. Pointers represent plates with dimensions of digits of not less than 20 cm in height and not less than 10 cm in width.

– Team foul pointers. The secretary should also have a pointer of the team fouls, with red digits of 35 cm in height and 20 cm in width.

– The indicator of the team fouls. Now, to an appropriate device is required show the number of team fouls (GameLocator, 2006).

Improvement of clothes and shoes for basketball game

One of the attributes of an athlete and his team is a basketball uniform. Comfortable sportswear and footwear enable confident on the playing court. Basketball, as any other sport, has its own etiquette in matters of clothing and equipment. Now the rules of the NBA and FIBA set the standard of basketball uniform, which consists of shirts, shorts, socks and shoes. Each team of the basketball should have the uniform of the same type. It looks very nice and stylish, yet very comfortable during the game (Daniel A, 2011).

According to new rules, basketball T-shirt should be informative, since it contains the number and the name of the player, it should be comfortable, hanging a little, not tight, so as not to hamper movement, but also should not be too large, as in a large T-shirt the player can get lost. In most cases material is synthetic, porous. T-shirt needs to breathe, to ensure proper ventilation, but it must be hard not to break into the most important moments of the game.

Shorts must be a match for the T-shirt, not too big not too small; they should complement the T-shirt, providing comfort for the player. T-shirt and shorts must be of a single set.

Basketball shoes are one of the most important accessories, which also lend to constant changes and improvements. Playing on the floor in the hall or in the street it is very easy to get injured. Making the jump for rebounds sharply increases the risk of ankle injury.

Modern basketball shoes can reduce the number of optional accessories and attachments for strengthening joints, ligaments and bones.

Some models can help to maximize growth, namely the height of the foot maximizes the growth of an athlete without the threat of injury or reduce the feeling of the site. The fact is that the thicker the sole, the higher above the ground an athlete is, and as a consequence the sense of courts is reduced, increasing the risk of injury. To increase the adhesion to the ground and a sense of court, it was proposed to increase the area of the sole. On the one hand it helps, but it goes a vicious circle, which only increases the weight of the shoes, what in turn makes them as “army boots” (iSport Bastetball, 2011). So, now scientists have calculated “ideal” proportions in which basketball shoes are highest above the ground and have a maximum area of the foot, without sacrificing ease. Also, at developing new sports shoes, lighter and more modern synthetic materials such as vinyl began to be used.

Nowadays there are many well-known companies that manufacture shoes for basketball. Their technologies are constantly being improved, that allows making shoes more comfortable and easy. Reebok and Adidas are among the most famous the manufacturers. These companies constantly fund various types of competitions; one of them is street basketball. Such companies as Dada, Convers, Fila, Li Ning, Avia, LA Gear have also authority, and shoes of Jordan Brand, the company of famous Michael Jordan are in great demand (iSport Bastetball, 2011).

So, discussing the evolution of basketball, there is a need to mention that the first match was held in winter 1891 with the soccer ball (Lehance, 2009). Each team had nine people, who played according to thirteen items of printed rules. All those players were mustached and bearded adult men, dressed in long pants and shirts with short sleeves. Since that time the basketball has gone the long way and modified greatly. A lot of things were modefied, including the rules, equipment and uniform. Today basketball is one of the most popular sports in the world, which has greatly changed over time due to technology advances.

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