- March 18, 2013
- Posted by: essay
- Category: Term paper writing
Baseball was spread in Japan due to American occupation forces after World War II. In the 90 years the Japanese player Hideo Nomo became one of the top pitchers the team the Los Angeles Dodgers. In baseball people are playing hard in Cuba and other Caribbean countries. Evidence of widespread popularity of baseball outside the United States was the fact that the Olympic Games in 1996 in the final match for the gold medals met Japan and Cuba (Cuba won the team).
There is also a view that baseball was born at the beginning of the XIX century. For a long time creating this game was attributed to a certain Abner Doubleday of Cooperstown American town. Now, however, it is challenging not only that he has ever played baseball, but also the fact that a person with that name at all lived in Cooperstown before the Civil War years 1861-1865. But there is no doubt about another fact. In 1845, New Yorker Alexander Cartwright established a baseball club “Knickerbocker”¯ and developed a set of rules, which were soon recognized by other baseball clubs in the city. That Cartwright has found that one team must have nine outfield players, four bases, and the distance between them – 90 feet (which is 27.3 m).
According to this version of the first baseball game took place in 1839 not on a baseball field in Cooperstown, New York, according to rules developed by Abner Dabldeem. Similar to a baseball game, which was attended by Doubleday, certainly looked like rounders. Premiere of the game in which any modern American would immediately recognize baseball, held June 19, 1846, when the crew of the New York Nine won the New York nikerbokers with a score of 23:1 on the rules of the game, developed by one year prior to the match, a surveyor and amateur athletes by Alexander Cartwright.
It should be noted that in 1869, the United States had the first team, paying players money for participation in the games – Red Stokings from Cincinnati. Hastened to follow the example of others, resulting in between amateurs and professionals split. Since then, their paths never crossed. Currently, the development of amateur baseball led International Association (IBA), which unites the national federation of almost 70 countries, and monitoring of professional baseball, is carried out by so-called commissioners.
For a long time in the U.S. there was only the National League, the highest recognized. During the 1880’s and 1890’s, various groups have tried to create the second major leagues, but success here has been only of Ban Johnson, who in 1901 founded the American League. It includes an existing team Western League, but with new teams in four major cities, which the owners had just left the NL. The reason for the closure of these clubs was their supposedly unhealthy financial situation. Johnson and his partners in the American League (AL) correctly estimated the demand for the second major league, skillfully used the opportunity to lure players from the NL in the simplest way – AL clubs offered more famous players salaries. After two seasons of the war against Johnson, the club owners NL in 1903 recognized the AL premier league. Since then, the top two leagues to work, without a single change in their composition until 1953, when began the process of moving to individual clubs NL and AL in the western regions of the country (especially California), where up to this league have not been submitted because of the relatively small population density, which took place there earlier. In our time of great baseball in the United States is an annual rally championship (each club holds 162 games from April to October) among the 14 NL teams and 14 teams of the AL, the champions who have already met with the 1903 series of matches to four victories to identify the best club USA.
Completion of the series in the AL and NL clubs was obtained through such subsidiaries teams that each club or contains entirely, or provides young players under contract with the local owner. Each year, clubs NL and AL carried out a set of young amateur players (school leavers and university), who managed to attract the attention of “intelligence”¯ of a club, for example, experienced experts in baseball in the service clubs in NL and AL, who follow the amateur teams, certain regions of the U.S. (or another country where a well-played baseball) and is prepared to lead his club’s evaluation and recommendations on specific players. Recruited players are sent to one of the affiliated club teams to improve and may then transfer to the first part of the club. Affiliated teams of different clubs are organized in separate leagues, which compete with new recruits.
According to What Caused the Decline of African-Americans in Baseball? (2008), “One difference between white and African-American communities is wealth. Could the difference in wealth affect the ability of these two groups to play baseball? It is possible that baseball requires more financial resources than other sports; thus, African-Americans, who are poorer than whites on average, are crowded out from playing baseball.”¯
All in all, it can be said that “African-Americans hardly lack sporting opportunities. If anything, sport holds too much sway among black youth and diverts attention from academic and vocational alternatives. Nor does the black community still rely on baseball to gain the cohesion and collective self-esteem that the Negro Leagues offered it during segregation”¯, according to Where have African-American baseball players gone? (2011). That is why, according to the information provided above, it can be said that the sport is in demand, and there is the lack of opportunities for African- Americans to play baseball. The marketing plan has to be developed and certain points have to be added to provide more opportunities and to promote baseball among African- Americans.
The past 20 years have witnessed a significant development level of the game among high school teams including black America in the United States. In 1950 a young baseball player who has a chance to get in the NL or AL, and I thought about the fact that there was that one of the clubs that got it right after school. Today, students can go to college, improve their game out there at a good level to get higher education and then go without a big delay in one of the major leagues. There are university graduates who fall just after the release in the NL or AL, but the improvement of the amateur player in the professional club still requires, as a rule, two or three seasons.
To sum it up, it is essential to note that getting Black America to baseball will be beneficial for the society, for the students and for many who are interested in sports, because there are many talented people waiting for their chance. The developed marketing plan is aimed at promotion and regaining an interest in baseball by African-Americans. All in all, it can be said that getting Black America back to baseball is important for approximation, for the society as a whole and for the success in sports, as regaining an interest in baseball by African-Americans is important nowadays and it should be supported by the society.
Black Baseball (2011). Retrieved June 7, 2011
For Negro League Players, a Measure of Recognition (2010). Retrieved June 7, 2011
Heaphy, Leslie (2003). The Negro Leagues, 1869”“1960 (illustrated ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 375. ISBN 9780786413805.
Lanctot, Neil. Negro League Baseball: the rise and ruin of a black institution. Philadelphia: U. of Penn. Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8122-3087-9 ”” 1933 to 1948
McNeil, William F. Black Baseball Out of Season: pay for play outside of the Negro Leagues. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. 2007. ISBN 0-7864-2901-1
Negro League Baseball Players Association (2011).
What Caused the Decline of African-Americans in Baseball? (2008). Retrieved June 7, 2011 from
Where have African-American baseball players gone? (2011). Retrieved June 7,