Group Performance

The norms of teamwork, as a rule, are given the peculiarities of the problem being solved and the leader, who also provides them with support. Solvable problem imposes restrictions on the type of joint activities and roles of group members. The leader sets and maintains standards of decision making and controlling over their implementation. However, the rules may have an impact and the team members, through their adoption (conformity) of violation and, in extreme form, by generating new work rules. Thus, the problem is solved, a leader and team members, set rules that will be carried out joint activities. The group will more or less be efficient to go to achieve their goals, depending on several factors: size, composition, group norms, cohesion, conflict, status, and functional role of its members.
Management theorists have devoted considerable time to determine the ideal size of the group. Authors school administration felt that a formal group to be relatively small. According to Ralph K. Davis, the ideal team should consist of 3.9 people. His opinion is inclined to divide Keith Davis, a modern theorist who has devoted many years of research groups. He believes that the preferred number of members of the group – 5 people. Studies show that in fact at the meeting of the group come from 5 to 8 people.
According to some studies we can conclude that the group, numbering from 5 to 11 members usually takes more accurate decisions than those that go beyond this number. Studies have also shown that in groups of 5 people, its members generally have greater satisfaction than that in groups larger or smaller. The explanation for this apparently lies in the fact that in groups of 2 or 3 people, its members may be concerned that their personal responsibility for decisions is made too obvious. On the other hand, in groups consisting of more than 5 people, its members may have difficulty diffidence in expressing their opinions to others.
In general, with increasing group size, communication between its members is complicated, and it becomes more difficult to reach agreement on issues related to the activities of the group and its purposes. Increasing the size of the group also increases the tendency for informal division into sub-groups, which may lead to inconsistent objectives and the formation of cliques.
An important reason for making the decision to issue the group is to use different positions to find the optimal solution. It is not surprising that on the basis of research it is recommended that the group consisted of dissimilar personalities, as this promises to be more effective than if members had similar views. Some people pay more attention to important details of projects and problems, while others want to look at the whole picture, some want to approach the problem with the system approach and consider the relationship between different aspects. According to Miner, when a group is selected so that they are either very similar or very different people, groups with different points of view are producing more high-quality solutions. The set of points of view and perception of the prospects is paying off.
Group norms. It was the first when researchers found groups in the workforce standards adopted by the group have a strong influence on the behavior of the individual and then, in what direction the work group: the objectives of the organization or to counteract them. The norms are designed to give members of the group, what behaviors and what work is expected of them.
This applies to both informal and formal organizations to. From the standpoint of the organization, it can be said that the rules may have positive and negative. Positive rules are those that support the goals and objectives of the organization and encourage behavior aimed at achieving these goals. Negative rates have the opposite effect: they encourage behavior that is not conducive to the achievement of organizational goals. Norms that encourage the diligence of employees, their loyalty to the organization, care about product quality or for the satisfaction of the buyer – a positive norm. An example of the negative rules is such rules, which encourage non-constructive criticism of the company, stealing, absenteeism and low productivity.

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