Research paper on History and origins of Hezbollah

Present research paper is aimed to analyze the activity of Lebanese terrorist organization Hezbollah, also known as Party of Allah. This document shows how large and ramified the organization is today and what important role it plays in political and social life of Lebanon and Middle East in whole.

During last decades of XX century the war, terrorism and extremism were inseparable concomitants of the states of Middle East. The principal players of confrontation are Israel, Syria, Iran and some other Arabic countries. During the last years they actively use different military, political and religious organizations of Lebanon for implementation of their political aims.

Appearance|occurring| in Lebanon of religious and political structures supporting the return to the Islamic norms|standard| of life took place under the influence of a number of internal|inlying| and external factors. In the absence of strong state power, in conditions of raging of anarchy and the protracted crisis a part|portion| of the Lebanese Moslems disappointed in the ability|power| of temporal parties to produce the effective strategy of settlement of crisis. In conditions of civil war they saw a way to solve the existing problems through the return to|by| the True Islam. In a large measure this process|Carbro| affected the largest in a country Shia community, which always was|appear| poor, oppressed and politically passive.

At the end of|at close of| 60-th, from the unique at that moment Shia organization Ad-daava the Lebanese wing was created. The leaders of future Hezbollah – Fadlallah, Tufeyli, Kurani, Shamsuddin, Sadr – were the members of this new organization. According to some information the present secretary general of Hezbollah sheikh Hassan Nasrallah also belonged among the supporters|proments| of Ad-daava.

Hezbollah (literally translated|transfer| from Arabic as “Party of God”) was created in 1982 by a group of Lebanese Shia clericals, some military|agent| and political figures of Iranian government and also by some Lebanese supporters|proments| of terrorist organization Amal.

This is what Hassan Nasrallah says about the history of creation|making| of Hezbollah in his Autobiography:

“In June 1982, Israel started its full-scale invasion of Lebanon. When the Israelis captured Beirut, a front called the National Salvation Front was established. Amal leader Nabih Birri showed a lot of interest in joining the Amal movement with that front, but the religious principle-ists (osulgarans) of the Amal movement were opposed to this. From that point the differences began to escalate and the principle-ist group separated from the movement. This matter was obvious and predictable, because some differences of opinion, especially regarding their views and versions of Imam Musa al-Sadr’s advice, were quite noticeable from an earlier stage. The religious forces realized that Amal was going astray.

The principle-ists left Amal and entered into coalition with other groups outside that movement, in order to establish and found Hezbollah.”

In 1985 at the conference of Pro-Iranian|Iran| extremist organizations in Iran the leaders of Hezbollah, Amal and other Lebanese military groups adopted a long-term|long term| program|programmability|. The essence of this program consisted in creation|making| in Lebanon of Islamic republic of Iranian type, liberation of the occupied territories of Southern Lebanon, war with Israel and fight against western influence in Lebanon.

The strengthening of Hezbollah and especially the strengthening of its positions in the regions of traditional influence of Amal resulted soon|before long| in strain of rivalry between two organizations, which in 1987-1989 took form of armed conflicts.

In 1990 Amal separated from terrorist activity and turned into religion oriented political movement.  In 1991 Hezbollah grew into leading military|battlefield| force|strenth| of Lebanese resistance|holdout|, operating against the Israeli troops on the south of the country.

From the beginning of 90-th Hezbollah gradually began to be transformed from a purely military|battlefield| force into political and social movement|strenth|. Hezbollah leaders declared|jile| their refusal of subversive and terrorist methods of struggle and reduced the level|Y-level| of military|battlefield| activity of Hezbollah in the south of Lebanon. Inside Hezbollah a compromise was reached between “moderates” and “radicals|”, a truce was concluded with Amal and an active preparation to|by| parliamentary elections began.

Hezbollah begins to act simultaneously as principle Lebanese political party, a large|major| Shia public and humanitarian organization and also as a military|battlefield| force|strenth|. In 1992 Hezbollah took part in parliamentary elections for the first time and got 8 from 128 places|seat| in parliament. Organization renders financial|cost| help in reconstruction of houses and business centers|heartland| damaged during fighting in the south of Lebanon, participates in reconstruction|reduction-oxidation| of roads|way| and in other kinds of activity.

Hezbollah has hundreds of activists and thousands of supporters|proments| in Bekaa, Beirut|Bayreuth|, in the south of Lebanon. Its secular and religious activity is an important part|portion| of the life of Shia community in Lebanon and provides|secure| Hezbollah with strong basis|backing| for mobilization|mobilisation| in its ranks of new|firsttime| members|limb| and fighters|combatant| among local population.

Thus|on this grow| Hezbollah is a radical Shia terrorist organization created in 1982 in Lebanon, the purpose of which was to create in Lebanon the Islamic republic of Iranian type and to destroy all non-islamic influences in the region. Hezbollah is is politically and spiritually closely related to Iran and Syria and has anti-western and especially anti-Israel orientation.

Today Hezbollah operates not only in Lebanon but also all over the world. Hezbollah has its branches in the valley|strath| of Bekaa, in Al’ Janoub province, in Western Beirut|Bayreuth||town|. There is also information about branches in South America, Indonesia, Malaysia, Canada, France, USA, Germany, England and Belgium.

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